“The illusion of freedom will continue as long as it’s profitable to continue the illusion. At the point where the illusion becomes too expensive to maintain, they will just take down the scenery, they will pull back the curtains, they will move the tables and chairs out of the way, and you will see a brick wall at the back of the theater.” ~ Frank Zappa
The story of the Jesuits of English-speaking America is largely forgotten. They came to Maryland only shortly after their better-known brothers reached Canada and more than fifty years before Eusebio Kino travelled north to California. But they had no romance. The dreams of a new Christian empire, of a European system translated whole onto the American wilderness, were not theirs, nor did they find the heroic martyrdoms of an Isaac Jogues or a Jean de Brébeuf. In their day they published no annual letters, and no historian since has imparted to their story the epic vigor with which Francis Parkman chronicled the Canadian Jesuits.
Yet this small group of men laid stronger foundations for Catholicism in America than did the Spanish in California or the French in Canada.
~ Georgetown.edu library
Rome, Maryland was the name of Washington D.C. before the richest man, John Carroll, a Jesuit, donated the land.
The White House is named after Jesuit, Andrew White, who helped found St. Mary’s Maryland and returned to England to die in his later years
The US, French, Russia, Britain, Australia, Chile, Puerto Rico, etc. all have the same colored flags
The US flag is a derivative of the hated East Indian Tea Company
Washington D.C. was founded on Feb 21, 1871 by Congress, beholden only to Congress oversite. This formed the US Corporation, The UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and their 10 miles is a separate City/state beholden to no other country, including the United States of America
Jesuits founded Canada, at the same time as White establishing Maryland.
Jesuits considered Washington D.C. the “New Jerusalem”, or New Birthing of their NWO, so this is why then named the two states adjacent, VIRGINia and MARYland, or the VIRGIN MARY..get it?
“We hang together or we hang separately” ~Benjamin Franklin
Who would design a flag with the exact same colors as the hated, just fought to the death British?
As well as the hated British East Indian Tea Company, who Freemasons, dressed as Native Americans (or “Indians”, because allegedly Columbus went the completely wrong way!).
US and East Indian Tea Company Flags
(note Red Cross of Switzerland, Knights of Malta, Columbus, etc.)
Betsy Ross was another fraud and lie made up as to who designed the US flag. (here)
“The land known today as the District of Columbia bore the name ‘Rome’ in 1663 property records; and the branch of the Potomac River that bordered ‘Rome’ on the south was called ‘Tiber.”
Rome Maryland becomes Washington D.C. with the 1871 Organic Act
Founding of “Rome, Maryland”. Rome, Maryland was the name of the city before the land was donated by Jesuit John Carroll, the wealthiest man in the US at the time, who also founded Georgetown University one year BEFORE, Washington D.C. was created
“Catholicism came to Maryland on March 25, 1634, an auspicious day: the Feast of the Annunciation and the first day of the English new year. A small group, Protestants and Catholics mixed, landed on a small island in the lower Potomac near the Maryland shore, and Father Andrew White celebrated Mass to bless the beginning of their colony. The Calverts came to Maryland as the Puritans had come to Massachusetts, for piety and for profit. Seeking a refuge from the Penal Laws, they hoped also to reap the benefits of a bountiful new land.”
Father Andrew White is who the US “White” House is named after!!
The Jesuits came to minister to the Catholic colonists, but also with an eye to the conversion of the native population. “Who then can have a doubt,” White wrote before leaving England, “but that by this one work so glorious, many thousand souls may be led to Christ?” White and his companions overcame the hostility of some of the tribes, the prejudice of Proprietor and English settlers, and the great barrier of language to convert several tribal chiefs. At St. Mary’s City White made of an Indian hut the colony’s first chapel.
The name “White House,” however, was not used officially until President Theodore Roosevelt had it engraved on his stationery in 1901. Prior to that, the building was known variously as the “President’s Palace,” the “President’s House,” and the “Executive Mansion.”
The Capital of Amerigo, the District of Columbia is named after Pesephone, the Godess of War not the other Catholic Explorer Christopher Columbus, as the wealthy elite history books have sold us.
And the White House is named after a Jesuit Andrew White. Then Daniel Carroll (Catholic) gives the land for our National Capital. Then after 26 years of Jesuit education John Carroll (Catholic) founded Georgetown University in 1789 the same year we became a country.
Andrew White (1579 – December 27, 1656) was an English Jesuit missionary who was involved in the founding of the Maryland colony. He was a chronicler of the early colony, and his writings are a primary source on the land, the Native Americans of the area, and the Jesuit mission in North America. For his efforts in converting and educating the native population, he is frequently referred to as the “Apostle of Maryland.” He is considered a forefather of Georgetown University, and is memorialized in the name of its White-Gravenor building, a central location of offices and classrooms on the university’s campus.
George Calvert, the first Baron Baltimore, whom White is credited in helping to turn to Catholicism in 1625, wrote to White from his colony on the Avalon Peninsula inNewfoundland after 1628. White’s further interest in America is shown a letter from Superior General Mutio Vitelleschi in a letter dated March 3, 1629, approving a mission to America. Though George Calvert died in 1632, his son, Leonard Calvert, second Baron Baltimore, continued the colonization program. Baltimore had wanted White to help found a new colony in the Chesapeake Bay which had been chartered June 20, 1632. White himself wrote of the benefits of converting the native population, and in a document dated February 10, 1633, he specifically advocates Catholic settlement in “lord Baltimore’s Plantation in Mary-land.” He describes to potential financiers a paradisaical land with majestic forests and fruitful soil, advertising 2,000 acres (8 km2) of land for each potential settler.
Apostle of Maryland
On November 22, 1633, he took Baltimore’s offer and set sail from Cowes on the Isle of Wight with lord Leonard Calvert and fellow Jesuits John Altham Gravenor and Thomas Gervase on The Ark, one of George Calvert’s ships. Their landing on March 25, 1634, on St. Clement’s Island marks the birth of the Maryland colony. The anniversary of this date is now celebrated as Maryland Day. In saying Catholic Mass that day, he became the first priest to do so in the original thirteen English colonies. By July of that year, White had written his first discussion on the new colony, titled A Relation of the Sucessefull Beginnings of the Lord Baltimore’s Plantation in Maryland. Sections of this were used to further advertise the colony.White spent most of the next decade in St. Mary’s City, working on English-Native American relations, particularly with the Yaocomico tribe, which consistently saw favorable trade treaties from Calvert because of White, and the Anacostans. In 1637 they were joined by Jesuits Thomas Copley and Ferdinand Poulton, and between 1634 and 1650 there averaged four permanent Jesuits in the Maryland Colony. To further his missionary work, he wrote dictionaries and translated the catechism into the native languages. On July 5, 1640, he famously converted Chitomachon, the chief of the Piscataway Indians, to Christianity. The chief was baptized as Charles. He later baptized a princess of the Patuxent Indians, and much of her tribe.
In 1933, the architect and writer Christopher La Farge designed a monument to White that is located just outside St. Mary’s City.
Return to England. The English Civil War was to cut short his missionary work. In 1644, Richard Ingle and Puritan colonists from the neighboring Virginian colony of Jamestown, which had previously rebuffed George Calvert’s visit, first raided St. Mary’s City. Ingle succeeded in burning the town and, with the aid of William Claiborne, in controlling the Maryland Colony. White was again arrested for his Catholic preaching, and in 1645 he was sent with Thomas Copley in chains to London. Once there, he was tried for the crime of returning to England after being banished in 1606, which carried the punishment of death. He escaped this fate by arguing that his return was not of his own will. His petitions to return to Maryland denied, he spent the last decade of his life quietly in England until his death on December 27, 1656.
The Jesuits’ Slaves
“Can a man serve God faithfully and posess slaves?” Brother Joseph Mobberly, S.J. asked in his diary in 1818. “Yes,” he answered. “Is it then lawful to keep men in servitude? Yes.”
The Jesuits of the Maryland province had always relied on plantations to support their ministries. The estates were extensive, totaling 12,000 acres on four large properties in Southern Prince Georges, Charles and St. Mary’s counties, and two smaller estates on Maryland’s Eastern Shore. In 1634, when the Jesuits arrived in Maryland, Lord Baltimore awarded them quasi-estates in which they were permitted to live off the rent of tenant farmers. However, as University Dean Hubert Cloke explains, “The system was totally antiquated and romantic, not related to reality, and they realized they were not going to make any money.” So, the Jesuits turned to indentured servants, English men and women who worked the land for set terms in return for the passage from England to Maryland. But as working conditions improved in England, the supply of indentured servants dropped and the Jesuits once again found a new way to work the land. By the 1680s they relied upon a fully developed slave system.
Compared to other plantation owners in the area, when it came to slavery, “The Jesuits were no better or worse,” according to Cloke. Many of the slaves had been gifts from wealthy Catholic families to sustain the Church. The abolition of slavery was not an issue in the area until the early nineteenth century, when Georgetown’s Jesuits became deeply divided over the issue of slavery.
“But they were not conflicted in the way you would want,” Cloke said. “They were conflicted over what to do about the threat of abolitionists.”
In a generational divide, an older group of Jesuits, mostly European born, felt a patriarchal connection to their slaves and were unwilling to sell them. A younger, American-born group, a minority, felt that the money invested in plantations should be spent on institutions in cities like Philadelphia and New York with their rapidly growing Catholic populations. It seems neither faction had any particular moral quandaries with the six plantations and the nearly 300 slaves owned by Georgetown’s and Maryland’s Jesuits.
This rift is just one of the things American Studies students learned when history professors like Cloke and Emmett Curran introduced the Jesuit Plantation Project into the American Studies curriculum in the spring of 1996. The project involved students transcribing and digitizing hundreds of documents from the Jesuit’s Maryland Province Index recording the Georgetown’s Jesuits’ complicated relationship with slavery.
With only two exceptions, all the higher-ranking Jesuits in the province during the time were foreign-born and of the older faction. Since only U.S. citizens had temporal jurisdiction, foreign Jesuits had no authority over the Mission’s estates.
This meant that a younger group of American Jesuits, a minority, controlled the destiny of the estates, and this group wanted to end slave operations.
“They considered the plantations and slaves as a losing business enterprise and thought the Society should rid itself of both plantations and slaves,” Curran said.
Abolitionists presented an economic rather than moral problem for these Jesuits. With a growing abolitionist presence in Maryland, some of them feared a devaluation of their property, their slaves. Maryland was a state in which slavery had a tenuous hold, the economy was no longer driven by slave labor. According to reports, the general debt of the mission was close to $32,000 by the 1830s, a large sum for the time.
“It was not a market for growing crops, but for growing slaves,” said Cloke. The real money was to be made not from the work a slave could do in Maryland, but from the hugely profitable business of selling the slaves downriver.
In 1815, Brother Joseph Mobberly, S.J. wrote a letter to John Grassi, S.J., the president of Georgetown College, listing three major reasons to sell the slaves. He wrote, “It is better to sell for a time or get your people free … Because we have their souls to answer for.” He then went on to explain that the slaves had become more difficult to govern, and he believed this to be the result of a growing abolitionist movement. Finally, in an extensive table of expenses, he concluded that the slaves should be sold because, “We shall make more and more to your satisfaction.”
Brother Mobberly, who served as an overseer on one of the estates, kept an extensive diary giving a bird’s eye view of the tension the Jesuits felt surrounding the issue of slavery. His diary explores the tension between Catholics, an already persecuted group, and the Presbyterians, Baptists, Quakers and Methodists who were outspokenly opposed to slavery. Mobberly, like other Jesuits, came to feel threatened and saw the issue as a Catholic-Protestant conflict. Involving everything from the Bible to Thomas Jefferson, Mobberly’s diary defended slavery. He explained that Abraham owned slaves, and wrote, “Abraham had God for his particular friend; and we do not read that God ever reproached him for keeping men in servitude. Therefore, it was lawful for him to possess them.”
Washington D.C., City of London & the Vatican, the true rulers of all lands. Each city-state is beholden to NO COUNTRY, and has its own laws, police force, mayor and constitutions:
Washington D.C. is a separate country (actually, a for profit private corporation written as: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA whereas the United States of America is under the US Constitutional law. That is why our BIRTH CERTIFICATE, SSN, DRIVERS LICENSE, BANK STATEMENTS, COURT DOCUMENTS, etc. are all in capital letters.
Washington, D.C is overseen only by Congress, who resides in Wash, D.C.
US taxpayers pay their taxes (voluntarily) to the USA CORPORATION based in Puerto Rico, whose corporate owners are registered in the City of London and the Vatican.
The United States is Not What You Think It Is
“In 1790, President George Washington, a Protestant? appointed Congressman (Daniel) Carroll to head a commission of three men to select land for the ‘federal city’ called for in the Constitution. Of all places, the commission chose ‘Rome,’ which at the time consisted of four farms, one of which belonged to…Daniel Carroll. It was upon Carroll’s farm that the new government chose to erect its most important building, the Capitol.”
The Corporation of THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA”.
With Daniel Carroll providing land for the Capitol, with Charles Carroll as War Commissioner, controlling all the executive duties of the military department, with its ammunition supplies of cannon balls, shot, kettles, spikes and nails to the army, with John Carroll an intimate friend of Franklin, even living in Franklin’s house, and District of Columbia donor and Capitol CommissionerDaniel Carroll close to Washington, with John Carrollestablishing Jesuit Georgetown University, whose seal proclaims a Roman eagle grasping the world and the cross, State and Roman Catholic Church with a banner in its beak, “Utraque Unum,”-“Both Together,” with the mayor of the District of Columbia Carroll’s nephew Robert Brent, it is not hard to see the proud Roman Catholic component of the American Revolution…and the Roman Catholic vision of a land where Roman Catholicism would be given the freedom to expand to the maximum…to take over the nation…and the world.
REMEMBER that in England and in the American colonies the Mass was forbidden. (here)
Catholicism came to Maryland on March 25, 1634, an auspicious day: the Feast of the Annunciation and the first day of the English new year. A small group, Protestants and Catholics mixed, landed on a small island in the lower Potomac near the Maryland shore, and Father Andrew White celebrated Mass to bless the beginning of their colony. The Calverts came to Maryland as the Puritans had come to Massachusetts, for piety and for profit. Seeking a refuge from the Penal Laws, they hoped also to reap the benefits of a bountiful new land.
Below is a article written by Charles Carroll Carter is the board of trustees of the Charles Carroll House of Annapolis, Maryland, the birthplace of Charles Carroll of Carrollton. He is a direct descendant of Daniel Carroll of Rock Creek. (here)
Charles Carroll, the only Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence; his cousin Daniel Carroll; and Daniel Carroll’s brother John Carroll, who became America’s first Catholic bishop.Charles Carroll of Carrollton (1737-1832) was the most illustrious and best-known of the Carrolls. He was the only signer whose property — Carrollton — was mentioned in the Declaration of Independence. Carrollton was the 10,000-acre estate in Frederick County, Maryland, that Charles Carroll’s father had given him on his return to America from his education in Europe.
At the time he signed the Declaration, it was against the law for a Catholic to hold public office or to vote. Although Maryland was founded by and for Catholics in 1634, in 1649 and, later, in 1689 after the Glorious Revolution placed severe restrictions on Catholics in England, the laws were changed in Maryland, and Catholicism was repressed.
Catholics could no longer hold office, exercise the franchise, educate their children in their faith, or worship in public. With the Declaration of Independence, all this bias and restriction ended. Charles Carroll first became known in colonial politics through his defense of freedom of conscience and his belief that the power to govern derived from the consent of the governed. He was a staunch supporter of Washington, and when the war was going badly at Valley Forge, he was instrumental in persuading the Revolution’s Board of War not to replace Washington with General Horatio Gates. Carroll supported the war with his own private funds; he was widely regarded as the wealthiest of all the colonists, with the most to lose were the fight for independence to fail. Carroll was greatly acclaimed in later life, and he outlived all the other signers of the Declaration.
Daniel Carroll of Rock Creek (1730-1796) was a member of the Continental Congress (1781-1783), and a signer of the Articles of Confederation. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and one of only two Catholic signers of the United States Constitution. (The other Catholic signer was Thomas Fitzsimons of Pennsylvania.) At the Constitutional Convention, Daniel Carroll played an essential role in formulating the limitation of the powers of the federal government. He was the author of the presumption — enshrined in the Constitution — that powers not specifically delegated to the federal government were reserved to the states or to the people.
Daniel Carroll later became a member of the first United States Congress (1789-1791). He was also a member of the first Senate of Maryland, where he served up to the time of his death. He was appointed by Washington as one of the first three commissioners of the new federal city that is now known as the District of Columbia. In today’s terminology, he would have been considered the mayor of Washington, D.C.
At age 13 John Carroll traveled with his cousin Charles to attend school at the Jesuit St. Omer’s. Daniel returned home from there to manage the family inheritance. In 1753 John Carroll entered the novitiate of the Jesuits at Watten in the Netherlands. In 1758, John returned to St. Omer’s to teach, being ordained to the Jesuit priesthood in 1761. When John found out that “The Jesuit St. Omer’s was about to be seized by the French government in preparation for the royal edict suppressing the Jesuits in France, he with other teachers and their pupils move to Bruges.”
John Carroll (1735-1815), Daniel Carroll’s younger brother, was educated in Europe, joined the Jesuit order, and was ordained a priest. He founded a private school for boys and named it after the town where it was located, Georgetown, a port on the Potomac River that later became part of Washington, D.C. He went on to be elected — by all the Catholic priests in America — to become America’s first Catholic bishop. He later became archbishop of Baltimore. In any procession of American bishops, the archbishop of Baltimore always goes last in recognition of its role as America’s oldest diocese. In 1789, John Carroll founded the college in Georgetown that later became known as Georgetown University.
During a period when the Revolutionary War was going badly, Washington asked John Carroll to join a mission to Canada to seek the support of the French for the colonies. Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Chase, and Charles Carroll of Carrollton were the others on the four-man mission. While it failed, it established a relationship with the French, much influenced by the Catholic faith they held in common with the Carrolls. It bore fruit years later at Yorktown, where the largely Catholic-financed French fleet cut off supplies to British general Charles Cornwallis, and Washington was able to force Cornwallis to surrender and bring the war to an end.
John Carroll was an intimate of Washington. He wrote a prayer at the time of Washington’s inauguration asking God’s blessing on the president, Congress, and government of the United States — a prayer still very much in use today. Out of gratitude for John Carroll’s support during the war, Washington gave a modified version of the seal of the United States to the institution that is now Georgetown University, and that seal is still in use.(It might be said that John Carroll gave the seal to Washington)
Despite their enormous contributions to the American founding, the three Carrolls somehow fell below the radar screen of recognition as full-fledged founding fathers. Perhaps that was because they were Catholics in a country and a culture that for many years was overwhelmingly Protestant.
Roman Catholic Source Link click here
The text below comes from The Grand Design Exposed”
and from “A Lie So Deeply Implanted” Click here
“Charles Carroll was named by the Annapolis Committee of Correspondence to be a delegate to the First Continental Congress.” Charles declined because he felt that his usefulness might be restricted by anti-Catholic sentiment engendered by the Quebec Act, however, he attended as an ‘unofficial consultant’ to the Marylanders. Charles Thompson and Charles, Daniel and John Carroll spent “the critical preliminary days to the congress lobbing for the inevitability of war. Thompson was already heavily invested in New Jersey’s Batso Furnace. Batso would furnish cannon balls, shot, kettles, spikes and nails to the army through the War Commissioner, who controlled all the executive duties of the military department…The War Commissioner was…Charles Carroll.
Jesuit missionaries learned Indian languages, and accepted Indian ways, to the point of conforming to them, especially when living among them. According to Jérôme Lalemant, a missionary must first have “penetrated their thoughts… adapted himself to their manner of living and, when necessary, been a Barbarian with them.”:42–43 To gain the Indians’ confidence, the Jesuits drew parallels between Catholicism and Indian practices, making connections to the mystical dimension and symbolism of Catholicism (pictures, bells, incense, candlelight), giving out religious medals as amulets, and promoting the benefits of the cult of relics.:43 (more)
Jesuit missions in North America started during the 17th century and faltered at the beginning of the 18th. The missions were established as part of the colonial drive of France and Spain during the period, the “conquest of the souls” being an integral part of the constitution of Nouvelle-France and early New Spain. The efforts of the Jesuits in North America were paralleled by their Jesuit China missions on the other side of the world. They left written documentation of their efforts, in the form of The Jesuit Relations.
First Mission (1609)
Port Royal circa 1612.
The Jesuits established a mission on Penobscot Bay in 1609, which was part of the French colony of Acadia.
Second Mission (1611)
The Jesuits wanted to participate in these forays into new lands.:43 On October 25, 1604, the Jesuit Father Pierre Coton requested the General of the Company Claudio Acquaviva to send two missionaries to Terre-Neuve.:43 As a result, in 1611, the two first Jesuits, Pierre Biard and Enemond Massé were able to leave for Port Royal in Acadia.:44 The mission failed in 1613 following a raid by Virginians.:2
Third Mission (1613)
A third mission was built on Mount Desert Island in 1613.
Fourth mission (1625)
The Jesuits conceived plans to move their efforts to the banks of the Saint-Laurent river. A fourth mission was established in 1625, made by our fathers Charles Lalemant (as Superior), Enemond Massé, Jean de Brébeuf, and assistants François Charton and Gilbert Buret.:44 This mission failed following the occupation of Quebec by English forces in 1629.:2
The Jesuit establishment
Le Grand Voyage du Pays des Hurons, Gabriel Sagard, 1632.
The Jesuit missions would gain a strong foothold in North America in 1632, with the arrival of the Jesuit Paul Le Jeune. Between 1632 and 1650, 46 French Jesuits arrived in North America to preach among the Indians.:2
Mission San Xavier del Bac,
est. 1692 in the Sonoran Desert, Viceroyalty of New Spain.
The mission of Sainte-Marie among the Hurons.
Jean de Brébeuf and Gabriel Lallemant stand ready for boiling water/fire “Baptism” and flaying by the Iroquois in 1649.
Viceroyalty of New Spain
Further information: Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert
Further information: Spanish missions in Baja California
In the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain (colonial México), from 1683 to 1767 the Jesuits established the first twenty missions in Baja California, on the Baja California Peninsula of present-day Mexico.
Also, from 1687 to 1704 the Jesuits established twenty three missions in the Sonoran Desert, in the Provincias Internas of New Spain, present day northwestern Mexico and southern Arizona.
The Suppression of the Society of Jesus by 1767 in the Spanish Empire led to their expulsion from the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The Franciscans replaced them in supporting existing and establishing new missions from 1768 to 1822 in Spanish North America. In 1774 on the Baja California Peninsula only, the Dominicans replaced the Franciscans in establishing missions.
See also: Jesuit Missions amongst the Huron
In 1634, the Jesuit established a mission in Huron territory under the direction of Jean de Brébeuf.:72The Mission de Sainte-Marie was quite successful, and considered as “the jewel of the Jesuit mission in New France.” More than a decade later, it was destroyed by traditional Huron enemies, the Iroquois,:2first in 1648 and again in 1649.:73 The Jesuits were killed along with the Huron. Eight Jesuits—killed between 1642 and 1649—became known as the North American Martyrs.
In 1654, the Jesuits started establishing missions among the Iroquois. In 1656 Sainte Marie among the Iroquois (originally known as Sainte-Marie-de-Ganentaa or St. Mary’s of Ganantaa) was the first of these new missions to be established, located among the Onondagas under Father Simon Le Moyne. Within thirteen years, the Jesuits had missions among all five Iroquois nations, in part imposed by French attacks against their villages in present-day New York state. As relations between the French and the Iroquois were tense however, the missions were all abandoned by 1708.:73 Some converted Iroquois and members of other nations migrated to Canada, where they joined the Jesuit mission village of Kahnawake by 1718.
The Jesuit mission at Detroit was moved to Bois Blanc Island in 1742. The mission was later reestablished in the vicinity of present-day Windsor, closer to the defences at Detroit. The Huron mission served both native and European residents, with the arrival of French settlers in the area. In 1767, the mission became the Parish of Assumption, the earliest Roman Catholic parish in present-day Ontario.
In the late 1750s, leaders from Kahnawake led 30 families upriver to create a new settlement at Akwesasne, today the largest Mohawk settlement in Canada.
Father Jacques Marquette with Indians.
By 1667 the Jesuits had established a station near present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin. The Illiniwek whom they met there are reported to have asked the French to send a missionary to them in their home country. In 1668 Father Marquette was moved by his superiors to missions farther up the St. Lawrence River in the western Great Lakes region. He helped found missions at Sault Ste. Marie in present-day Michigan in 1668, St. Ignace in 1671, and at La Pointe, on Lake Superior near the present-day city of Ashland, Wisconsin. In 1673, Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette and French-Canadian explorer Louis Jolliet undertook an additional journey to explore the Mississippi river as far south as the mouth of the Arkansas River.
During the late 1690s, the Jesuits expanded along the middle of the Mississippi river, in competition with the Seminary of Foreign Missions of Quebec (a branch of the Paris Foreign Missions Society).:54In 1700, the Jesuits established themselves at the mouth of the River Des Peres.:55 From 1703 a large Jesuit establishment was based at Kaskaskia in Illinois country, when Jacques Gravier was appointed vicar general of the Illinois Mission.:64 He was located in Fort de Chartres.:158
Many of the missionaries compiled studies or dictionaries of the First Nations and Native American languages which they learned. For instance, Jacques Gravier compiled the most extensive Kaskaskia Illinois-French dictionary among works of the missionaries before his death in 1708. It was not edited and published until 2002, but the work has contributed to the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma‘s language revitalization project with Miami University in Oxford, Ohio.
Great Britain took over colonial rule of Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi River in 1763 after the Seven Years’ War. In Quebec they allowed the Jesuits to continue to minister to First Nations villages.
The Jesuits maintained a presence until their order was dissolved in France. They were officially expelled from Louisiana in 1763. At that time twenty-seven of them were officiating from Quebec to Louisiana.:158 After the Order was restored by Pope Pius VII in 1814, Jesuits resumed missionary work in Louisiana from around 1830.:160
Several Belgian men came to study at Whitemarsh, near Bowie, Maryland, in the early 1820s. They all had volunteered to be missionaries to Native Americans. Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, who started working in Missouri in 1830, would eventually build strong relationships with leaders of numerous tribes of the West, including Sitting Bull, war chief of the Sioux. Through the nineteenth century, Jesuit priests founded missions and schools among Native tribes in present-day Montana and Idaho.