Lens Academy has produced a list of terms in this particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms.



























A/B testing

A/B testing refers to a methodology used by marketers to test two different treatments of a given ad unit, typically isolating a difference in things like email subject lines, headlines, layouts or colour treatments. In A/B testing, the control is typically the creative treatment currently in use and tested against a new variant to better optimize a given campaign. A/B testing helps determine which treatment works better based on key performance indicators like open rates, click-through rates and conversion rates.

Above the fold

A term derived from offline print media, “above the fold” originated from newspapers where the most important story or image appeared in the top half of the newspaper. Despite its print origins, this phrase has also been applied to digital media. Traditionally describing a PC viewing experience, the phrase “above the fold” referred to whether web content was displayed without requiring a viewer to scroll down on a web page.

Activity audit

Independent verification of measured activity for a specified time period. Some of the key metrics validated are ad impressions, page impressions, clicks, total visits and unique users. An activity audit results in a report verifying the metrics. Formerly known as a count audit.

Access platform

A method for customers to access digital media. Depending on usage of term, it may consist of hardware and/or a browser.

Ad audience

The number of unique users exposed to an ad within a specified time period.

Ad banner

Ad banners (also known as banner ads) are one of the most dominant forms of advertising on the internet. Banner ads are a form of display advertising that can range from a static graphic to full motion video.

Ad blocker

Software on a user’s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed.

Ad campaign audit

An activity audit for a specific ad campaign.

Ad click

The user activity of pressing a navigation button or hitting the enter key on the keyboard on an advertisement unit on a Web site (banner, button or text link). (See Click-through).

Ad creative pixel

A pixel request embedded in an ad tag which calls a web server for the purpose of tracking that a user has viewed a particular ad. See web beacon.

Ad delivery

Two methods are used to deliver ad content to the user – server-initiated and client-initiated, which are explained in the diagrams below.

Ad delivery system (or ad server for advertiser)

Is a web server dedicated to the delivery of advertisement focus on the buying side. This specialization enables the tracking and management of advertising related metrics and allows the advertiser to create ad tag, which contains the creativity.

Arbitrage (advertising)

When online advertising exploded, the amount of remnant inventory did too — there were an infinite number of webpages and, in theory, an infinite amount of inventory. Networks then began to increase the value of ad inventory by, for example, placing cookies or writing algorithms. Put simply, the agency is both buying and selling, and implies a lack of transparency about the process. Ad networks do arbitrage by going to publishers, negotiating a low price on impressions or inventory, then reselling them. They even do some amount of value-add. The problem happens when agencies start playing with this model and doing it as part of their programmatic strategies.

Arbitrage (economics)

Arbitrage, in economics, is just an opportunity to buy an asset for a low price, then turn around and sell it at a higher price in a different market — pocketing the spread in price.

Acquisition rate

Percentage of participants who opted in to participate in a digital campaign. The acquisition rate = total participants/total audience.

Ad creative

The format, design and content in a particular unit of advertising. In digital media, ad creative may refer to a specific email, a display banner, a video or other piece of branded content.

Ad exchange

An ad exchange is a sales channel between publishers and ad networks that can also provide aggregated inventory to advertisers. They provide a technology platform that facilitates automated auction based pricing and buying in real-time. Ad exchanges’ business models and practices may include features that are similar to those offered by ad networks.

The definition of an ad exchange excludes technology platforms that exclusively provide tools that enable direct media buying and selling between exchange participants.

Ad impression

A metric expressing each time an ad is served and displayed, whether it is seen or not, whether it is clicked on or not.

Ad injection

Ad injection is a technique by which ads are surreptitiously inserted in webpages without getting the permission of site owners or paying them. The practice takes multiple forms. In one, ads are inserted on top of those that already appear, making the original ads impossible to see (and hurting publishers’ viewability scores). Injected ads can also replace other ads entirely, or appear on pages that weren’t supposed to include ads at all.

Ad inventory

The amount and types of ad space a publisher has available for an advertiser to buy.

Ad network

Ad networks provide an outsourced sales capability for publishers and a means to aggregate inventory and audiences from numerous sources in a single buying opportunity for media buyers. Ad networks may provide specific technologies to enhance value to both publishers and advertisers, including unique targeting capabilities, creative generation, and optimization. Ad networks’ business models and practices may include features that are similar to those offered by ad exchanges.

Ad optimization

A means of improving campaign performance through automated and semi-automated means, usually through a systematic approach. Ad optimization often focuses on cost (especially prices in automated bidding), targeting or creative, gleaning performance improvements through testing.

Ad ops

The team/function that is responsible for trafficking and optimizing digital ad campaigns.

Ad request

The request for an advertisement as a direct result of a user’s action as recorded by the ad server. Ad requests can come directly from the user’s browser or from an intermediate Internet resource, such as a Web content server.

Ad rotation

The ability to show multiple ads in a single location, varying the treatment displayed on each new page load and/or within a single page load. Ads are generally rotated to either avoid consumer wear-out or as a part of ad optimization and testing.

Ad server

An ad server is a web server dedicated to the delivery of advertisement. This specialization enables the tracking and management of advertising related metrics.

Ad serving

Delivery of online adverts to an end user’s computer by an ad management system. The system allows different online adverts to be served in order to target different audience groups and can serve adverts across multiple sites. Ad Technology providers each have their own proprietary models for this.

Ad space

A space within an application that has been reserved for the display of advertising.

Ad stitching

Server-side ad insertion, also known as “dynamic ad insertion” or simply “ad stitching,” is a technology that lets publishers stitch their video and ad content together on the CMS level rather than on the level of the browser. It’s a technology that’s been around for years but one that’s picked up steam as ad blocking has become a bigger concern for publishers.

Ad tag

Software code that an advertiser provides to a publisher or ad network that calls the advertisers ad server for the purposes of displaying an advertisement.

Ad tracking

The method for recording campaign delivery metrics between ad-servers. Third party ad-serving tags or 1×1 tracking pixels are commonly used to facilitate the capturing of such data.

Ad unit

An ad or set of ads displayed as a result of a piece of ad code executing. That’s used for promotional messaging and paid for with the intent of promoting a product or service, e.g. a display banner on a publisher’s site, a pre-roll video on a video sharing platform, etc.

Ad view

When the ad is actually seen by the user. Note this is not measurable today. The best approximation today is provided by ad displays.

Add to cart

The user activity of storing merchandise in a virtual shopping cart that the user intends to later purchase from an online e-commerce website. This enables users to continue browsing and “check-out” later or alternately delete these items from the cart.


A brand offering a product or service, either to consumers or businesses, that pays for promotional messages to create awareness of the brand or offering.

Advertising banner

A graphic advertising image displayed on a Web page.

Advertising network

Also known as “ad networks,” a company that provides a single point of contact for sales representation for multiple websites by aggregating all the sites’ advertising inventory. Ad networks are used by advertisers, agencies to reach audiences and by publishers, typically to sell remnant inventory.

Affiliate marketing

An agreement between two sites in which one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. In return, the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.


An organization that, on behalf of clients, plans marketing and advertising campaigns, drafts and produces advertisements, places advertisements in the media. In interactive advertising, agencies often use third party technology (ad servers) and may place advertisements with publishers, ad networks and other industry participants.

Aggregate campaign data

Data combined from several advertising campaigns to create a segment where campaign level data is not identifiable.

Agnostic approach

No preferred partners. E.g. “Lens Academy is the agnostic learning hub”, it means neutral, doesn’t have any preferred partner so there’s no sponsorship of 3rd party products or solutions.


A set of rules established for making a calculation. Online, algorithms are commonly used to determine the listings shown via search engines and for automated methods of ad trading and delivery.


Detailed statistics about website or app usage patterns, used by marketers to optimize advertising campaigns, improve user experiences, and understand customer behavior.


An intermediary which prevents Web sites from seeing a user’s Internet Protocol (IP) address.


Average order value, the average spend per customer


An API (Application Programming Interface) is a set of commands, the language that programmers or developers use to communicate with a specific piece of software or hardware.

Applications (Apps)

Software solutions that allow PCs, smartphones and tablets to perform useful functions beyond the running of the computing device itself. Commonly called “apps” when referred to in the context of smartphone and tablet devices.


Publishers that take advantage of the alternative payment models they are buying and selling leads or sales through.


It’s a portmanteau of two seemingly opposite words, athletic and leisure, which both the media and fashion industry have adopted to describe the ubiquity of leggings, tank tops and sneakers in everyday wear. Athleisure reflects a larger shift in society, where people are not only adopting healthier lifestyles but also looking for more comfort and functionality in their clothing. Social media hasn’t hurt its spread, either.


The process of connecting an ad event to a consumer action; or, more broadly, the process of connecting any consumer touch point a brand provides to a desired response. Attribution is an increasingly hot topic among brand marketers. Put simply, attribution is how much of a customer’s decision can you attribute to a certain channel.


An audience is the group of people who visit a specific web site or who are reached by a specific ad network.

Audience measurement

The counting of unique users (i.e. audience) and their interaction with online content. At a campaign level, this service is conducted by a third party to validate that a publisher delivered what an advertiser had requested. At the industry level, this service enables media buyers to understand which brokers of online content to negotiate with to reach a specific audience.

Audience targeting

A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based on their shared behavioral, demographic, geographic and/or technographic attributes. Audience targeting uses anonymous, non-PII data.


Authentication is the process of attempting to verify the digital identity of the sender of a communication such as a request to log in.  The sender being authenticated, often referred to as the principal, may be a person using a computer, a computer itself or a computer program.

Average view time

Refers to the average amount of time the video ad was played by users.


B2B (business to business)

Commercial transactions between an organization and other organizations.

B2C (business to consumer)

Commercial transactions between an organization and consumers.

Baby boomers generation

People born between 1946–1964. Here below their main characteristics:

Give maximum effort

Accepting of authority figures in the workplace

Results driven

Plan to stay with the organization over the long term

Retain what they learn


The transmission rate of a communication line – usually measured in Kilobytes per second (Kbps). This relates to the amount of data that can be carried per second by an internet connection. See also Broadband.


A graphic advertising image displayed on a Web page.


A web beacon, also known as a web bug, 1 by 1 GIF, invisible GIF, and tracking pixel, is a tiny image referenced by a line of HTML or a block of JavaScript code embedded into a web site or third party ad server to track activity.

The image used is generally a single pixel that is delivered to the web browser with HTML instructions that keep it from affecting the web site layout. The web beacon will typically include user information like cookies on the HTTP headers, and web site information on the query string.

Web beacons are used to collect data for web site and ad delivery analytic, and also specific events such as a registration or conversion:

Ad Creative Pixel – A web beacon embedded in an ad tag which calls a web server for the purpose of tracking that a user has viewed a particular ad.

Conversion Pixel – A web beacon that transmits to a third-party server that a user has successfully completed a process such as purchase or registration.

Piggyback Pixel – A web beacon that embeds additional web beacons not directly placed on the publisher page.

Secure Pixel – A web beacon that is delivered over HTTPS.

Behavioral targeting

Using previous online user activity (e.g., pages visited, content viewed, searches, clicks and purchases) to generate a segment which is used to match advertising creative to users (sometimes also called Behavioral Profiling, Interest-based Advertising, or online behavioral advertising). Behavioral targeting uses anonymous, non-PII data.

Below the fold (BTF)

Below the Fold – (BTF) a term derived from newspaper print advertising, this means that an ad is placed on a website below the scroll line as the page is viewed before any scrolling occurs; out of view before scrolling

Black list

A list of IP addresses that have been reported and listed as “known” sources of spam. There are public and private blacklists. Public blacklists are published and made available to the public.


An online space regularly updated presenting the opinions or activities of one or a group of individuals.

Bounce rate

Figured as a percentage, this compares the number of visitors to a website who arrive and immediately leave vs. those who stay and spend time on the site; can be used to measure the effectiveness of a website, a search campaign or an ad campaign.

Brand advocate

A customer who has favorable perceptions of a brand, who will talk favorably about a brand to their acquaintances to help generate awareness of the brand or influence purchase intent.

Brand awareness

Research studies can associate ad effectiveness to measure the impact of online advertising on key branding metrics.

Brand equity

The brand assets (or liabilities) linked to a brand’s name and symbol that add to (or subtract from) a service.

Brand metrics

Measurable KPIs associated with branding objectives, such as brand lift, affinity, or favorability.


A software program that can request, download, cache and display documents available on the World Wide Web.


A persistent, graphical element that appears in the video environment. Clicking on it will take the user to a website.


Cache memory

Used to store web pages users have seen already. When users re-visit those pages they load more quickly because they come from the cache and don’t need to be downloaded over the internet again.

Cache date

This is the date when the search robot last visited a page. It is usually indicated within the search engine results page.

Cached page

Google robots take a snapshot of each page visited as they crawl the web. These are stored and used as a backup if the original page is unavailable.


In traditional marketing, an campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme. In digital advertising, a campaign will refer to a set of ad buys from a specific ad network or publisher.

Call to action (CTA)

An instruction often embedded in advertising that explains how to respond to an opt-in for a particular promotion or mobile initiative.


A company that provides wireless telecommunication services.

Check ins

Executed via a GPS enabled mobile device that allows a user to declare they are at a specific location.

Classified advertising

A form of advertising which is particularly common in newspapers, online and other periodicals which may be sold or distributed free of charge. Classified advertising is called such because it is generally grouped under headings classifying the product or service being offered (headings such as Accounting, Automobiles, Clothing etc) and is grouped entirely in a distinct section, which makes it distinct from display advertising. Display advertising typically contains graphics or other art work and which is more typically distributed throughout a publication adjacent to editorial content.

Click tracking URL

Also known as click through URL or click command. This is used to record the number clicks delivered on an advertising banner. Commonly used when third party ad-serving is not compatible and run alongside the 1×1 tracking pixel.

Click through

The process that takes a mobile subscriber to a jump or landing page once the mobile subscriber has clicked on the link site.

Click through rate (CTR)

Used to measure the success of a mobile or online advertising campaign. CTR = number of users who clicked on ad/number of times the ad was delivered.


A term used by web-based companies offering users the ability to access files or services from devices that are connected to the internet (the opposite of storing files or programs on a hard or external drive).


An amount of income received by a publisher for some quantifiable action such as selling an advertiser’s product and/or service on the publisher’s website.

Companion ad

Both Linear and Non-linear Video ad products have the option of pairing their core video ad product with what is commonly referred to as companion ads. Commonly text, display ads, rich media, or skins that wrap around the video experience, can run alongside either or both the video or ad content. The primary purpose of the Companion Ad product is to offer sustained visibility of the sponsor throughout the video content experience. Companion Ads may offer click-through interactivity and rich media experiences such as expansion of the ad for further engagement opportunities.

Content management system (CMS)

Software tools or web services for creating and amending website content. Typically, CMS are browser-based web applications running on a server. All enable users to readily add new pages within an existing page template.

Content marketing

Content Marketing Any marketing that involves the creation and sharing of media and publishing content in order to acquire and retain customers.

Contextual advertising

Advertising that is targeted to the content on the webpage being viewed by a user at that specific time.


A trend in which different hardware devices such as televisions, computers and telephones merge and have similar functions.

Conversion rate

Measure of success of an online ad when compared to the click-through rate. What defines a ‘conversion’ depends on the marketing objective eg: it can be defined as a sale or request to receive more information.


A conversion occurs when the user performs the specific action that the advertiser has defined as the campaign goal. Conversions are often tracked by a web beacon, called a conversion pixel.


Information placed on a visitor’s computer or mobile by a web server that can be stored or retrieved when the site is accessed. Used to record a user’s unique behavior during each visit.

Cookie expiry period

The time stated in an affiliate marketing program between when a visitor clicks the affiliate link and the sale is credited to the affiliate. Common times are 7, 30 or 90 days. A longer cookie period will result in a higher EPC.

Cookie matching

A method of enabling data appending by linking one company’s user identifier to another company’s user identifier.

Cookie stuffing

With cookie stuffing, while publisher X sends visitors to Amazon, a separate publisher actually gets credit — and hence money — for the sale. They do this by dropping multiple cookies after someone views a page or clicks on a single link. The hope is that dropping multiple cookies increases the chance that the person will go on to visit and buy from one of the commerce sites in question.

Cost per download

Cost per Download – (CPD) the price an advertiser pays every time a desired download (such as a coupon download) occurs via an ad unit; rather than paying for all impressions, and advertiser only pays when the desired outcome occurs[CPD = Cost ÷ download]

Cost per engagement

Cost per Engagement – (CPE) the price an advertiser pays every time a consumer interacts with a rich media ad unit; rather than paying for all impressions, and advertiser only pays when the desired interaction occurs [CPE = Cost ÷ Engagement]

Cost per acquisition (CPA)

Refers to the overall costs associated with acquiring one user. This can be calculated by dividing total marketing costs by total number of new users.

Cost per action (CPA)

A pricing model that only charges advertising on an action being conducted eg. a sale or a form being filled in.

Cost per click (CPC)

The amount paid by an advertiser for a click on their sponsored search listing. See also PPC.

Cost per mille (CPM) / cost per thousand

Online advertising can be purchased on the basis of what it costs to show the ad to one thousand viewers (CPM). It is used in marketing as a benchmark to calculate the relative cost of an advertising campaign or an ad message in a given medium. Rather than an absolute cost, CPM estimates the cost per 1,000 views of the ad .

Cost per thousand impressions (CPM)

The revenue paid to the publisher by the advertiser for every thousand times the ad is shown.

Creative retargeting

A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors that previously were exposed to or interacted with the advertisers’ creative.


Customer Relationship Management is the set of business practices that guide a company’s interactions with current and future customers in all areas, from sales, marketing, and loyalty programs, to customer service, and technical support.

Cross device targeting

The ability to serve sequential ad messages to the same consumer from one device to the next (e.g. first on a person’s desktop then again on his/her smartphone).

Cross device tracking

Cross-device tracking describes the myriad ways platforms, publishers and ad tech companies try to identify Internet users across smartphones, tablets and desktop computers. The goal of cross-device tracking is to be able to know that the person using smartphone X is the same person who uses tablet Y and laptop Z, and then allow brands to re-target that person accordingly.

Customer acquisition

Techniques used to gain new customers.

Customer retention

Techniques to maintain relationships with existing customers.



Direct to Consumer.

Dark traffic

For the most part, publishers and marketers can tell where their Web traffic is coming from, be it direct or through search engines or a social network like Facebook or Twitter. But then there’s all the under-the-radar sharing that takes place — on chat, messaging apps, IM and in email — outside the mainstays of the social network ecosystem. Then there are sites that are secure, which means that they don’t collect information on users. That’s the dark traffic part.

Data exchange

Online auction marketplace where advertisers acquire 3rd party data that helps them better reach their target audiences with display.

Data Exchanges were created as marketplaces where Online Data Providers could sell their data directly to DSPs and Ad Networks. Who Uses: Ad Networks, DSPs.

Data leakage

Data leakage typically occurs when a brand, agency or ad tech company collects data about a website’s audience and subsequently uses that data without the initial publisher’s permission.

Data management platform (DMP)

Platforms that allow advertisers, agencies, publishers and others to control their own first-party audience and campaign data, compare it to third-party audience data, and give the ability to make smarter media buying and campaign planning decisions via behavioral targeting or extending audiences via lookalike modeling. Advertisers and agencies generally utilize DMPs in order to buy more effectively while publishers typically utilize DMPs in order to segment their audiences and sell more effectively.

Deal ID

A number that is assigned to a programmatic ad transaction used by both the buyer and seller to transact on prearranged parameters; in invitation-only auctions (aka private marketplaces).

Deep linking

Deep linking is simply a way for app developers to link to specific pages within apps. With deep linking, developers can link one app to another, sending users to profile pages, product listings or specific deals. In other words, deep linking helps apps move away from being silos and become more seamless and connected. This behavior is table stakes with the desktop Web, but it doesn’t exist as fully with mobile.

Demand side platform (DSP)

An advertising technology platform which allows marketers to manage their online media campaigns by facilitating the buying of auction-based display media and audience data across multiple inventory and data suppliers in a centralized management platform. Who Uses: Agencies, Marketers, etc.

Device ID

A device ID (device identification) is a distinctive number associated with a smartphone or similar handheld device. Device IDs are separate from hardware serial numbers.

Digital signage

Display of text and/or images, shown in digital formats over the internet or on television. Digital signage is commonly used to advertise products or services as they can offer more animations to entice consumers. Digital signage use technologies such as LCD, LED and Projection to display content such as digital images, video, streaming media, and information.

Direct response

Direct Response – (DR) an ad that is designed to have the viewer take immediate action; for example, in digital advertising, this often means a click, sign up, download, or purchase.


The difference in campaign reporting numbers for key measurements such as impressions and clicks between multiple ad servers.

Display advertising

A form of online advertising where an advertiser’s message is shown on a destination web page, generally set off in a box at the top or bottom or to one side of the content of the page.

Domain name

The unique name of an internet site e.g. http://www.lens.academy

Double opt in

See Confirmed Opt-in

Double opt in

Requesting the subscriber to opt-in twice, prior to engaging with the subscriber.


Digital Rights Management is a set of technologies used by publishers and media owners to control access to their digital content. Access can be limited to the number of times a piece of content is accessed from a single machine or user account; the number of times access permissions can be passed on; or the lifespan of a piece of content.

Dynamic creative optimization (DCO)

Dynamic Creative Optimization is the process in which the right banner is automatically generated in real time – with layout, products and messaging – based on a user’s shopping intent that is determined by our data mining engine.


E-commerce (electronic commerce)

Business that takes place over electronic platforms, such as the internet.

Email advertising

Banner ads, links or advertiser sponsorship that appear in e-mail newsletters, e-mail marketing campaigns and other commercial e-mail communications. Includes all types of electronic mail (e.g., basic text or HTML-enabled).

Email bounced

Those emails sent as part of a mailing distribution which did not have a valid recipient email address and so generated a formal failure message.

Effective CPM (eCPM)

Effective CPM – the average CPM of a campaign [eCPM = Total Cost ÷ Total Imps x 1000];

Embedded format

Advertising formats that are displayed in set spaces on a publisher’s page. See also banners, skyscrapers, button.

Expandable banner/skyscraper

Fixed online advertising placements that expand over the page in the response to user action eg: mouse over. See also Rich Media.



Frequently asked questions.

Filter bubble

The filter bubble is created when a large group of people get most of their information from personalized new delivery platforms such as Google News, Facebook’s news feed and, to a lesser extent, Twitter. People who rely on these platforms for their media consumption are at risk of only being served stories that pander to, and thus reaffirm, their pre-existing worldviews.


Provides security for a computer or local network by preventing unauthorized access. It sits as a barrier between the web and your computer in order to prevent hacking, viruses or unapproved data transfer.

Fixed mobile convergence (FMC)

A mobile device that supports both carrier network and WIFI and can switch between each seamlessly.


Web design software that creates animation and interactive elements which are quick to download.

Floating ads

An ad or ads that appear within the main browser window on top of the Web page’s normal content, thereby appearing to “float” over the top of the page.


A structure that allows for the dividing of a webpage into two or more independent parts.


It’s a form of piracy. Freebooting is whenever a Facebook user uploads a video they don’t have the rights to. It is different from, say, posting a link to a YouTube video to your wall.

Freemium model

A type of business model that works by selling basic services, or a basic downloadable digital product, for free, while charging a premium price for advanced or special features.

Frequency cap

Restriction on the amount of times a specific visitor is shown a particular advertisement.

FTP (File transfer protocol)

Internet protocol which facilitates downloading or uploading digital files.


Generation X

People born between 1965–1976. Here below their main characteristics:

Technologically savvy

Like informality

Learn quickly

Seek work-life balance

Embrace diversity

Generation Y (Millennials)

People born between 1977–1994. Here below their main characteristics:

Technologically savvy

Like informality

Embrace diversity

Learn quickly

Need supervision

Generation Z

People born between 1995–2012. This highly diverse environment will make the grade schools of the next generation the most diverse ever. Higher levels of technology will make significant inroads in academics allowing for customized instruction, data mining of student histories to enable pinpoint diagnostics and remediation or accelerated achievement opportunities.

Gen Z kids will grow up with a highly sophisticated media and computer environment and will be more Internet savvy and expert than their Gen Y forerunners. More to come on Gen Z.

Geo targeting

The process of only showing adverts to people on a website and in search engines based on their physical location. This could be done using advanced technology that knows where a computer is located or by using the content of website to determine what a person is looking for, e.g. someone searching for a restaurant in Islington, London.


A standard web graphic format which uses compression to store and display images.

Global positioning system (GPS)

System of satellites, computers and receivers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a given receiver located on Earth. Determined by the time it takes signals from different satellites to reach the receiver.


General Packet Radio Service or ‘2.5G’ is an underlying mechanism for mobile networks to deliver Internet browsing, WAP, email and other such content. The user is ‘always connected’ and relatively high data rates can be achieved with most modern phones compared to a dial-up modem. Most phones default to using GPRS (if capable).

Gross Rating Point (GRP)

Gross rating point (GRP) is a term used in traditional advertising to measure the size of an audience reached by a specific media vehicle or schedule. It is the product of the percentage of the target audience reached by an advertisement, times the frequency they see it in a given campaign (frequency × % reached). For example, a television advertisement that is aired 5 times reaching 50% of the target audience each time it is aired would have a GRP of 250 (5 × 50%).

GRP values are commonly used by media buyers to compare the advertising strength of various media vehicles.


Global Standard for Mobiles. The set of standards covering one particular type of mobile phone system.


Guaranteed is referred to the quantifiable media buy during specific period of time for one campaign. This type of campaign has pre–agreed budget and volumes.


Hard bounces

Email non-delivery notifications that are generated as a result of messages being sent to invalid, closed or nonexistent email accounts.

Header bidding

Header bidding, also known as advance bidding or pre-bidding, is an advanced programmatic technique wherein publishers offer inventory to multiple ad exchanges simultaneously before making calls to their ad servers (mostly DoubleClick for Publishers). The idea is that by letting multiple demand sources bid on the same inventory at the same time, publishers increase their yield and make more money.

Holding company

Four major international groups, Dentsu Aegis, Omnicom, Interpublic, WPP and Publicis Groupe, that each control a large number of different operating agencies across the globe.


Any computer on a network that offers services or connectivity to other computers on the network. A host has an IP address associated with it.

House ad

Ads for a product or service from the same company. “Revenues” from house ads should not be included in reported revenues.


HyperText Markup Language, the set of commands used by web browsers to interpret and display page content to users.


A new standard for displaying content on the web through browsers. HTML5 is the new rendition in work of HTML (hypertext markup language) that will be competing directly with Flash and includes features like video playback and drag-and-drop functionality.



IAB is a trade association devoted exclusively to maximizing the use and effectiveness of interactive advertising and marketing.

IDFA (Identifier for Advertising/Advertiser)

Identifier for Advertisers (IFA or IDFA) is a temporary device identifier used by the Apple set of handheld devices. It provides device identification while giving end users the ability to limit the device/consumer information accessed by advertisers or apps. IFA is available on all devices with versions iOS 6 and later.


Short for “inline frame,” this is the area on a website designated for an ad to appear.

Image ad

An image on a mobile internet site with an active link that can be clicked on by the wireless subscriber.


Business metric for counting the number of times the web users have viewed the advertising spaces in the website page. Many websites sell advertising space by the number of impressions displayed to users.

In banner video ads

Leverage the banner space to deliver a video experience as opposed to another static or rich media format. The format relies on the existence of display ad inventory on the page for its delivery.

In page video ads

Delivered most often as a standalone video ad and do not generally have other content associated with them. This format is typically home page or channel based and depends on real estate within the page dedicated for the video player.

In stream video ads

Played before, during or after the streaming video content that the consumer has requested. These ads cannot typically be stopped from being played (particularly with pre-roll). This format is frequently used to monetize the video content that the publisher is delivering. In-Stream ads can be played inside short or long form video and rely on video content for their delivery. There are four different types of video content where in-stream may play, UGC (User Generated Content/Video), Syndicated, Sourced and Journalistic.

In text video ads

Delivered from highlighted words and phrases within the text of web content. The ads are user activated and delivered only when a user chooses to move their mouse over a relevant word or phrase.

Insertion order

Purchase order between a seller of interactive advertising and a buyer (usually an advertiser or its agency).

In stream

When a video ad “streams” (plays) alongside (before/mid/after) video content.

Internet of things

Put simply, it’s when “things” get online, creating a seamless connection between, for example, your car, your refrigerator, your phones and the Web. The term was coined by British technologist Kevin Ashton in 1999 when he was at MIT. Your objects will become more-intelligent, somewhat-sentient beings that will be able to, with the help of the Internet, do your work for you.

Internet protocol TV (IPTV)

The use of a broadband connection to stream digital television over the internet to subscribed users.

Internal service provider (ISP)

A company which provides users with the means to connect to the internet.

Interstitial ads

Appear between two content pages. Also known as splash pages and transition ads.

IP address

The numerical internet address assigned to each computer on a network so that it can be distinguished from other computers. Expressed as four groups of numbers separated by dots.

IP address permanence

An IP address is a unique number assigned to each device connected to the Internet. An IP address can be dynamic, meaning it changes each time an email message or campaign goes out, or it can be static, meaning it does not change.



A programming language designed for building applications on the Internet. It allows for advanced features, increased animation detail and real-time updates. Small applications called Java applets can be downloaded from a server and executed by Java-compatible browsers like Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.


Standard web graphic file format that uses a compression technique to reduce graphic file sizes.

Jump/landing page

The page or view to which a user is directed when they click on an active link embedded in a banner, etc. Provided additional information and/or a mechanism to make a purchase.



A name or word used to distinguish a key message within a Short Code Service.

Keyword targeting

Targeting content that contains specific keywords.


Key Performance Indicators, also known as KPI or Key Success Indicators (KSI), help an organization define and measure progress toward organizational goals.


LACEL™ (Lens Academy corporate e-learning)

Software powered by Lens Academy. Is the corporate e-learning solution to gather the best practices and knowhow of the company and allows to merge with the Lens Academy learning program.

LAN (Local area network)

A group of computers connected together which are at one physical location.

Landing page (jump page)

The page or view to which a user is directed when they click on an active link embedded in a banner, web page, email or other view. A click through lands the user on a jump page. Sometimes the landing page is one stage upstream from what would ordinarily be considered the homepage.

LAPE™ (Lens Academy learning enabled program)

Lens Academy Programmatic Enabled Program qualify your company as Programmatic Enabler.

The LAPE™ brand gives your company international recognition as a Lens Academy certified partner.

Large rectangle

An IMU size. The IAB’s voluntary guidelines include seven Interactive Marketing Unit (IMU) ad formats; two vertical units and five large rectangular units. For more information, see the IAB’s Ad Unit Guidelines.

Latency time

The time delay while advertising loads on a page. In streaming media, latency can create stream degradation if it causes the packets, which must be received and played in order, to arrive out of order.


When a visitor registers, signs up for, or downloads something on an advertiser’s site. A lead might also comprise a visitor filling out a form on an advertiser’s site.

Lead generation

Fees advertisers pay to Internet advertising companies that refer qualified purchase inquiries (e.g., auto dealers which pay a fee in exchange for receiving a qualified purchase inquiry online) or provide consumer information (demographic, contact, and behavioral) where the consumer opts into being contacted by a marketer (email, postal, telephone, fax). These processes are priced on a performance basis (e.g., cost-per-action, -lead or -inquiry), and can include user applications (e.g., for a credit card), surveys, contests (e.g., sweepstakes) or registrations.

Lens Academy B.V.

Agnostic learning hub for gaining and sharing knowledge of digital media and advertising. It provides both online courses for individuals and workshops for companies. It creates the programmatic specialist.


A clickable connection between two Web sites. Formally referred to as a hyperlink.

Location base

A range of services that are provided to mobile subscribers based on the geographical location of their handsets, e.g. local deals and sat nav.

Log files

A record of all the hits a web server has received over a given period of time.

Long tail

Longtail – coined by Chris Anderson in an article in Wired Magazine, and in a book and his book The Long Tail; used to describe a portion of a statistical graph depicting the far end of a demand curve; applied in the digital media industry in different ways, but most commonly refers to a class of websites that each individually garner very little traffic (yet, when aggregated via networks and exchanges, offers tremendous scale)


Mailing list

An automatically distributed e-mail message on a particular topic going to certain individuals.

Managed tag

For buyers, a managed tag is basically one way to get an early look at publishers’ inventory at a fixed cost. By plugging a tag into a publisher’s ad server, a buyer is able to see and possibly bid on inventory before the ad call, after which that inventory is offered to other potential buyers, both direct and indirect. It’s basically calling dibs.

Marketing mix modeling

Marketing Mix Modeling – (MMM) Also sometimes called Mixed Media Modeling, a statistical analysis applied to a mixed media plan to forecast the impact of the plan (see also: Mixed Media)


MCNs collect and represent talent — folks with popular YouTube channels — and package them for advertisers in exchange for a slice of their income. Offerings differ across each MCN, but they tend to help creators build and share audiences, provide access to production resources and seek sponsors for branded content opportunitie

Media company

A company that derives revenue from publishing content via one or more means of distribution, e.g., print publishing, television, radio, the Internet

Meta data

Data that provides information about other data. This includes descriptions of the characteristics of information, such as quality, origin, context, content and structure.

Meta tags/description

HTML tags that identify the content of a web page for search engines.

Master service agreement

Master Service Agreement – (MSA) a contracted document which outlines the agreed upon terms between a buyer and seller which is used as a baseline to govern future transactions


A linear video spot that appears in the middle of the video content. See preroll and post-roll.


See Generation Y

Missed call marketing

Consumers opt into ads by dialing a number and hanging up before the call connects. The customer will then receive text messages and calls with ads in them.


The Mobile Marketing Association – A global non-profit association that strives to stimulate the growth of mobile marketing and its associated technologies.

Mobile Advertising

A form of advertising that is communicated to the consumer/target via a handset. Most commonly seen as a Mobile Web Banner Ad (top of the page) Mobile Web Poster (bottom of the page banner), full screen interstitial (appears while requested page is loading), SMS and MMS Ads, Mobile Gaming Ad, and Mobile Video Ad.

Mobile/location-based targeting

Mobile/location-based targeting refers to a way to target advertisements on mobile devices such as smartphones or feature phones, GPS receivers, tablets (such as iPads) and soon on many mobile laptops. On phones and tablets, such advertisements can appear in a mobile Web browser or within an app. Geographic tar

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