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Rating A

1. Evaluate the expression: 2•7!

A) 10,080

B) 10,280

C) 10,000

2.Evaluate the expression: C(9,3)

A) 84

B) 48

C) 27

3. A jar contains 21 pink and 26 navy marbles. A marble is drawn at random.P(navy)Express the probability as a decimal. Round to the nearest hundredth.

A) 0.55

B) 0.055

C) 0.0055

4. Evaluate: 3!

A) 6

B) 3

C) 1

5. There were 13,249 weddings in Springs City last year. According to state records, notaries public performed 17% of the weddings. How many weddings were not performed by notaries public?

A) 1099

B) 10994

C) 10997

6. Evaluate the expression: P(5,5)

A) 120

B) 230

C) 25

7. Find the probability. Write your answer as a percent rounded to the nearest whole percent:

A number from 8 to 16 is drawn at random. P(12).

A) 11%

B) 13%

C) 15%

8.Fill in the missing value. Assume simple interest.

principal ________

interest rate 3%

time 1 year

simple interest $2,472.57

A) principal $82,419

B) principal $85,419

C) principal $822,419

9. State whether the statements are true or false: AcA

A) True

B) False

10. A jar contains 25 green, 19 white, 6 pink, and 21 orange marbles. A marble is drawn at random. P(white, green, or pink)Express the probability as a fraction.

A) 50/71

B) 71/50

C) 5/7

11. State whether the statements are true or false: ØcA

A) True

B) False

12. If A and B are independent events, P(A)=.4, and P(B)=.6 find P(A È B)

A) 0.76

B) 0.076

C) 0.0076

13.Determine whether the events A and B are independent

P(A)= .6, P(B)= .8, P(A Ç B)= .2

A) Independent

B) Not Independent

14. Find the probability. Write your answer as a fraction in simplest form:

You roll a number cube numbered from 1 to 6. P(1).

A) 1/6

B) 6

C) 1/3

15. If A and B are independent events, P(A)=.4, and P(B)=.6 find P(A Ç B)

A) 0.24

B) 0.024

C) 0.0024

16.Find the probability. Assume that the spinner is separated into equal sections:

You flip a coin and toss a 1-6 number cube.

P(3 and heads)

A)1/ 12 or 0.083

B)1/6 or 0.167

C) 1/8 or 0.125

17. Let A and B be two events in a sample space S such that:

P(A) =.6, P(B)= .5, and P(A Ç B)= .2 find P(A \B)

A) 2/5

B) 5/2

18.A number from 15 to 26 is drawn at random.P(24)Express the probability as a percent. Round to the nearest percent.

A) 8%

B) 9%

C) 10%

19.Evaluate the expression: 5!-3!

A) 114

B) 2

C) 8

20. Evaluate the expression: 9!

A) 362880

B) 362800

21. Fill in the missing value. Assume simple interest.

principal $400,007

interest rate 13%

time 2 years

simple interest ________

A) simple interest $105,001.82

B) simple interest $104,001.82

C) simple interest $104,003.82

22.Using the combination formula complete the following:

How many combinations of two letters are possible from the letters U, A, and X?

A) 3

B) 5

C) 9

23.Evaluate the expression: 3 · 5!

A) 360

B) 120

C) 15

24.Evaluate the expression: 6!+4!

A) 744

B) 704

C) 720

25.Fill in the missing value. Assume simple interest.

principal $87,698

interest rate ________

time 1 year

simple interest $6,138.86

A) interest rate 7%

B) interest rate 8%

C) interest rate 10%

26.Find the probability:

A number from 10 to 22 is drawn at random. P(an odd number) Express the probability as a decimal. Round to the nearest hundredth.

A) 0.46

B) 0.17

C) 0.75

27.State whether the statements are true or false: {Ø}=Ø

A) True

B) False

28.Determine whether the events A and B are independent

P(A)=.3, P(B)=.6, P(A intersect B)=.18

A) Independent

B) Not Independent

29.Fill in the missing value. Assume simple interest.

principal $19,582

interest rate 4%

time ________

simple interest $2,349.84

A) time 3 years

B) time 4 years

C) time 2 years

30.Evaluate: 5!

A) 120

B) 25

C) 5

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APRIL 23, 2015 WRITER1

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Historical Themed Research Paper In this semester, you will write 1 “Themed” Research paper of a word minimum of 2000 words, which will be worth 80 points a. A list of historical themes has been provided below and you may choose any theme as the basis for your paper. You will pick one event, topic, or a person, etc. of historical importance from each of the 3 grading periods and write a themed research paper based on your 3 selections, comparing and contrasting each of the 3 subjects of your choice under the theme you have chosen. You are required to use a minimum of 6 scholarly sources for your research – NO WIKIPEDIA PERMITTED in citations. Your minimum 6 scholarly sources may include the course text book, extra source materials, mypowerpoints and/or lectures (I only count once), but it is not required. You MUST use 2 primary documents as part of your 6 sources. You may of course use more than 6 sources. You must quote each of your sources at least once in your paper, using it to support your analytical writing and citing your sources appropriately according to a writing style guide, either parenthetically or footnoted. A properly formatted Works Cited or Bibliography must also be included. Remember, this is a research paper based on a theme I have provided so you must address that theme throughout the paper. This paper is worth 80 points and is due SATURDAY 5/9/2015 before 11:59 pm. Remember, I DO NOT ACCEPT LATE WORK so you have to turn it in on time to earn credit. I have also attached a sample Themed Research paper as an example of a well done paper. THEMES IN HISTORY 1. Geographic Determinism on the course of historical events There are many instances in history when the course of human events is determined by the geography and not merely by human will or action. One good example of this is the Nile River. The manner in which the Nile River flows and slowly floods its banks provided a natural irrigation with rich deposits of nutritious soils that created a well fed culture known as the Egyptians. Without the Nile, there would have been NO Egypt. 2. The Big “C”s ~ Conquest, Commerce, Colonization, & Conversion on the Course of History This theme resonates throughout history and is the manner in which peoples, their cultures and their ideas, spread across the landscape. An obvious perfect example is the discovery of the New World and the subsequent conquest of the western hemispheric peoples, their often-times forced conversion to Christianity, and the purposeful colonization of the New World in order to advance commercial trade and build wealth for the Spanish Empire. 3. Causes and Effects in History ~ “what came first, the chicken or the egg?” This historical theme is the very core of understanding the course of human events. Historical events do not occur in a vacuum ~ one event leads to another, which leads to another and in this manner we see how humans act, and mostly, react, to stimului of their times. Did the invention of the moveable type printing press in 15th century Europe cause a great surge in literacy OR did a desire to become more literate have the effect of finding faster ways to spread the written word? The argument is yours to make. 4. “Shoulda, Woulda, Couldas” ~ alternate histories with alternate endings This is probably one of my favorite themes in history. What would have happened differently in the future course of history IF one important change were made to its past? IF ONLY HITLER HAD BEEN FATALLY WOUNDED IN WWI instead of recovering, OR if he had died from the gassings of the trenches in WWI. Would there have even been a WWII? Would there have been 60+ million lives lost in WWII? Would there have been a Holocaust? When you use this theme, you need to first discuss the actual history and then propose a viable alternate history based on a possible course change in the events. It has to be a plausible alternative. 5. Role of Economics in History ~ “money makes the world go around” or does it? If I have said it once, I have said it a MILLION times = money DRIVES politics ~ it is NOT the other way around. Most actions of human beings, if not all, have an economic desire behind them, whether for food, land, power, security, etc., humans labor and toil to accomplish a goal that is always rooted in a desired end = using scarce resources, which have alternative uses, to achieve profitable results. When the early Islamic Empires conquered the known world, it was more desirable NOT to force Christians and Jews to convert, because as Dhimmi they were taxed at a much higher rate. So, less conversion = more money in taxes, therefore religious tolerance in early Islamic caliphates had an economic return. 6. GREED & POWER ~ Who has it? How do they get it? What do they do with it? Why do we care? Is there anyone ever born in the history of the world who is NOT greedy, at least a little bit? Hunger makes us greedy for food. Poverty makes us greedy for riches. I work to make money so I can afford the things in life I need and enjoy. You all are furthering your education to do that same thing. But when the normal human level of greed multiplies like a cancer and produces a lust for power, the very worst in human behavior occurs. Genghis Khan is a good example = through ruthless behavior he united all the tribes of the steppes and built the largest land empire the world has ever known – but he lusted after China with its rich rice paddies and advances in culture and wealth. He fought his way up from poverty and tribal slavery to being recognized as the punishing flail of God, but he was forever irked that he could not conquer China after many attempts. It would be his grandson, Kublai Khan that succeeded where Genghis did not. 7. Gender and History ~ “The hand that rocks the cradle, rules the world” ~ oh, really? The role of women is the history of the world is filled with tragedy, abuse, exploitation, and ignorance. Women went from being equals with men in Paleolithic societies and innovators of the Agricultural Revolution, to being bought and sold like pack animals. But women became very adept at learning how to manipulate situations in their favor, or at least the men in those situations, when necessary. Whether driven by mere survival instincts, or motivated by higher yearnings, women of influence, power and action were an aberration in history. Joan of Arc was a simple, possibly delusional French country maiden who convinced armies of men that God had sent her to lead the French in conquest against the British – and indeed she did. 8. Race and History (Ethnicity and History) ~ “them versus us” scenarios We don’t often think in terms of racism in history until the onslaught of Black African slavery, which began in the 7th and 8th centuries by Islamic merchants. But certainly history is full of “them versus us” scenarios of one culture, or nation maintaining their superiority of being over another. The Romans were a great example of a culture seeing themselves superior to all other societies, whom they regarded as barbarians. If you were not Roman, then you were born inferior and you deserved to be conquered and ruled by a superior people. This thinking has driven Imperialism since Sargon the Great, the first empire builder in the 3rd millennium BCE. 9. Religion and History ~ “My God is better than your god” This theme kind of goes hand in hand with “them versus us” scenarios, only this is MY GOD is better than your god = meaning my GOD is the most powerful and your god is not. Religion was NOT a concept of belief in the ancient world as it is in the modern world, something you chose to accept or not – in the ancient world it was your complete way of life and thought and the motivation of all action. Humans created myths and legends of gods and creation stories to help them understand their world and their place in it, and in so doing it helped them justify why one people can dominate another. The history of the Hebrews-Israelites-Jews demonstrates a people who created a religious ideal of ONE GOD who demanded their separation from the rest of the world, and in so doing projected a religious identity unique in world history, only to see it adopted and changed by Christianity first, and then by Islam. 10. Role of Family in History ~ as a social, a defensive, an economic, and/or a spiritual construct Family units are the very core of how human beings have organized themselves from their very beginnings. Parents, children, grandparents evolved into generations of extended families that grew into tribes and then into larger societies. But what happened to the role of the parents? of children? How did civilization impact the family unit? An interesting study is the Spartans, who had institutionalized segregation of the sexes and dissolution of the family unit in favor of a male-dominated society of warriors who began their training from the time they are born and raised from the time of 8 years old in a completely male environment. The entire aim of Spartan society was to produce elite Spartan warriors, for women to give birth to them and for men to raise them. 11. The Effects of Education on History ~ “I know something you don’t know . . .” Education is one of the five hallmark institutions of society, along with political institutions, economic institutions, family institutions, and religious intitutions. Indeed, education is experienced from the time you are born and you learn language and other cultural skills from your family. The development of a writing system is one of the hallmarks of civilization, which enables a society to record and preserve their thoughts, beliefs, ideas, inventions, innovations, etc. and pass them forward in time. Education also allows for concepts and ideas to pass from culture to culture, via trade, or migrations, or even conversions. When the European Crusaders journeyed through the Byzantine Empire of their way to the Holy Land, they picked up new ideas, new skills, new thoughts and concepts, which eventually lead to the intellectual rebirth of Europe called the Renaissance ~ an era in which backwater Europe would propel itself within 100 years to the top of the global foodchain of civilizations. 12. Individualism vs. Communalism ~ “the need of the one” or the “need of the many”? Human beings need each other, it is that simple. Men hunted wild game in packs and women birthed and nurtured their families in packs. We are communal creatures – so when and why did the concept of individuality begin? We were for centuries defined by our gender, or our class, or our professions, or our utility to a society – but seldom were we defined by our unique qualities, unless we were the few and the fearless who aspired to greatness above the masses. And here is where the occasional person or people emerge who place more value on the unique ability of the individual, then on the herding instinct of the masses. Art became a way for the one to differentiate themselves from the many, as it expressed a part of them in a public setting. For example, the communalism of an army was always led by the individuality of a general and his art of military tactics. Athens is a good example of a society that stressed the power of the individual with the creation of Athenian Democracy that granted all citizens, males over 18, a voice in the politics of the city-state. 13. WAR ~ “What was it good for?” War is the most constant theme in history ~ it has been occurring and reoccurring in every age of human existence and while it is easy to recount the horrible after effects of war there is also a case to be made for the positive outcomes of war. An obvious positive outcome of war is the independence won in the American Revolution and the eventual creation of the unique Democratic Republican government outlined in our U.S. Constitution. 14. Pivot Points in History ~ “when in the course of human events . . .” ~ the course abruptly changes There are incredible moments in history when the path that human existence is following dramatically changes and heads off in another direction. Sometimes these changes occur because of major geologic events, such as the volcanic eruption that buried the Roman City of Pompeii or they occur from human actions, such as the discovery of vaccines that globally improved human health. So with this theme you will look at one pivotal event and discuss how it changed the direction human life was taking. 15. The Power of Personality ~ Celebrities who change history This is similar to Pivot Points in History, but instead of a pivotal event you have a pivotal personality ~ someone who impacts history politically, culturally, religiously, economically, etc. Not all pivotal personalities in history were conquerors, such as Alexander the Great or Julius Caesar. Some influential personalities who changed history would be John Locke and his theories of liberty and freedom that were foundational to the rhetoric of the U.S. Declaration of Independence; Martin Luther King and his activism for racial equality in America that inspired the Civil Rights movement of the 60s; Harriet Beecher Stowe and her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin that exposed the horrors of American southern slavery to northerners and contributing to the start of the Civil War. 16. “One man’s VIRTUE is another man’s EVIL” ~ Extreme human acts and responses in history These acts are the most disturbing aspects of our historical past, and even our present. Either through individuals or groups, horrifically classified acts such as genocides, tortures, or suicides have been perpetrated for reasons that to some are revered as heroic or religious acts and to others they are seen as evil. The attacks of 911, the Holocaust of Euorpe’s Jews, the Armenian Genocide of WWI – these and many more are acts in history of shock and awe that result in responses that affect history. So you need to not just write up the the details of the extreme event, but the responses to it that changed history. 17. 20/20 Historical Hindsight ~ problems seeing the past through modern eyes ~ “Had they known then, what we know now . . .” This is a theme that requires a higher level of critical thinking. I am adamant that we must try to look at past events through the lenses of those who actually lived them ~ putting yourself in their shoes and evaluating their actions and reactions based on what they believed, what they knew, what they understood. When we judge the past based on our intellectual and emotional attitudes then we cannot possibly comprehend WHY they acted or reacted as they did. One of the “inactions” in history that I think historical hindsight has mistreated is the formulation of the U.S. Constitution WITHOUT abolishing slavery in America at that time. Ratification of the Constitution and its role in building the foundation of the United States of America needed ALL states to ratify it and simply would NEVER have happened if the abolition of slavery were proposed at that time – the southern states would have walked out of the convention. Compromises were made so ALL states would seek its ratification and many believed then that the compromises that allowed slavery to remain would eventually lead to its gradual disappearance. Had the founding fathers known then that there would be an invention called the Cotton Gin that would make plantation farming of cotton the most lucrative cash crop in world history and subsequently entrench a cruel plantation slavery even deeper into southern society, then perhaps they would have at least considered the plausibility of its abolishment. 18. “Mirror, Mirror on the Wall . . .” ~ paradoxes in history ~ “heads and tails,” i.e. flip sides (ex: good and bad) of the same event, person, or place. This is another theme that requires a higher level of critical thinking and reasoning. It is important to understand that there is NO historical event, person, era, place, etc. that is monothematic = meaning there is only one way to view it. A good example of a historical person with many facets of interpretation is Martin Luther. He is credited with one of the bravest and selfless acts in history by challenging the corruption of the Catholic Church and becoming the driving force of the Reformation. But there is another side to Martin Luther that few know about because history prefers to focus on the positive side of him = I am talking about his raging Anti-Jewish attitudes. He advocated some of the most heinous anti-Semitic acts of his time, irrationally hating the Jews. One cannot truly say they know about Martin Luther unless they are willing to examine BOTH sides of his personality. 19. “For want of a nail . . .” ~ how technology has affected history This is a favorite theme in history for students – how new inventions and innovations can change history. The Cotton Gin that I mentioned above would be a good example. The moveable type printing press used by Johann Gutenberg to mass print the Bible propelled an explosion in printed material that incited desires in people to become literate so they could read all the materials being circulated. 20. History and the Environment ~ exploiting Mother Nature and its consequences. This in kind of the opposite of Geographic Determinism, in that it is how humans have impacted the earth, rather than how the earth has impacted humans. A good example is the Dust Bowl in American modern history. For thousands of years, the Great Plains of North America had been natural grazing lands for migratory herds. The deep rooted prairie grasses withstood droughts, storms, winds, and fires. But once humans started cultivating the Great Plains in the 1800s by plowing up all the prairie grasses and replacing them with temporary, short rooted crops, this directly resulted in the black blizzards of the 1930s. Droughts and winds carried all the top soil off the plains and carried it into the atmosphere, leaving the once rich farm lands a desert wasteland.

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APRIL 23, 2015 WRITER1

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MGT 230 Final Exam

MGT 230 Final Exam

Rating A

1) Planning involves which of the following?

A. Analyzing current situations

B. Determining rewards for goals achievement

C. Motivating employees

D. Implementing necessary changes

2) _______ is specifying the goals to be achieved and deciding in advance the appropriate actions needed to achieve those goals.

A. Staffing

B. Leading

C. Organizing

D. Planning

3) Advances in genetic engineering and biotechnology are expected to produce some food products that will become available year-round even in northern climates. These changes will provide grocers with an opportunity to reduce their shipping costs while at the same time, offering fresher produce to their customers. These advances are an example of changes in the

A. technological environment

B. economic environment

C. political environment

D. ecological environment

4) _________ trends regarding how people think and behave have major implications for management of the labor force, corporate social actions, and strategic decisions about products and markets.

A. Psychological

B. Economic

C. Technological

D. Societal

5) Which of the following is a step in the decision-making process?

A. Generating an idea

B. Good business planning

C. Evaluating the decision

D. Delegating a task

6) Which is a step in the decision-making process?

A. Resolving and reducing conflict

B. Making the choice

C. Using the lack of structure

D. Delegating a task

7) The targets or ends the manager wants to reach are called

A. goals

B. missions

C. visions

D. strategies

8) In the _______________ stage of the planning process, managers should weigh the advantages, disadvantages, and potential effects of each alternative goal and plan.

A. goal and plan evaluation

B. goal and plan selection

C. implementation

D. alternate goals and plans

9) Tactical planning would include which of the following?

A. Profit goals

B. Design, test, and install the equipment needed to produce a new product line

C. Human resources requirements

D. Return on investment

10) The internal analysis component of the strategic management process assesses the organization’s

A. performance levels

B. competitors

C. industry growth rate

D. product substitutions in the market

11) Eagle Manufacturing, Inc., is in the middle of its first day of the senior management retreat. The topic on the agenda is corporate social responsibility (CSR). Most of the group has seen this brought up before and then shot down because it generally costs Eagle’s shareholders in the form of a lower stock price. But the new VP of Ethics, Gloria Wright, is about to explain why she believes CSR will actually benefit the shareholders and Eagle management alike. Her team begins the presentation with a discussion of CSR—its current definition and reconciliation of past views. Jeremiah then discusses the importance of being a good global corporate citizen by supporting the local school system. Ellen takes the floor to make the case for doing what is expected by global stakeholders even though there are no

laws requiring those actions. Finally Gloria wraps the discussion up with why Eagle should take legal and economic responsibility for the firm’s performance. To Gloria’s team’s credit, senior management does appear to buy into the pyramid of global corporate social responsibility and performance that her team just presented.

Ellen’s presentation most likely focused on the __________ responsibility of the firm.

A. economic

B. legal

C. ethical

D. social

12) Eagle Manufacturing, Inc., is in the middle of its first day of the senior management retreat. The topic on the agenda is corporate social responsibility (CSR). Most of the group has seen this brought up before and then shot down because it generally costs Eagle’s shareholders in the form of a lower stock price. But the new VP of Ethics, Gloria Wright, is about to explain why she believes CSR will actually benefit the shareholders and Eagle management alike. Her team begins the presentation with a discussion of CSR—its current definition and reconciliation of past views. Jeremiah then discusses the importance of being a good global corporate citizen by supporting the local school system. Ellen takes the floor to make the case for doing what is expected by global stakeholders even though there are no

laws requiring those actions. Finally Gloria wraps the discussion up with why Eagle should take legal and economic responsibility for the firm’s performance. To Gloria’s team’s credit, senior management does appear to buy into the pyramid of global corporate social responsibility and performance that her team just presented.

Gloria’s team’s presentation focused on the pyramid of global corporate social responsibility. To do what is desired by global stakeholders correlates with the _______ component of the pyramid.

A. philanthropic

B. ethical

C. legal

D. economic

13) In the study by Lawrence and Lorsch, companies in complex, dynamic environments developed _____ levels of differentiation; and

_____ levels of integration.

A. low; low

B. high; high

C. low; high

D. high; low

14) An aspect of the organization’s internal environment created by job specialization and the division of labor is called

A. differentiation

B. integration

C. division of labor

D. specialization

15) An organization with departmentalization that groups units around products, customers, or geographic regions is called a

A. divisional organization

B. centralized organization

C. matrix organization

D. functional organization

16) Which of the following statements about matrix organizations is true?

A. A matrix organization is the same as a functional organization.

B. A matrix organization is the same as a product organization.

C. A matrix organization is a hybrid of the functional and divisional organizational forms.

D. A matrix organization is considered out-of-date compared to the organic organization.

17) An organization with departmentalization that groups units around products, customers, or geographic regions is called a

A. centralized organization

B. matrix organization

C. virtual organization

D. divisional organization

18) Sports International (SI) began business by making shoes for athletes. They soon expanded into making shoes for non-athletic purposes. They now manufacture and distribute clothing, sporting equipment, and protective sports gear worldwide. They are departmentalized by products sold to serious athletes, products sold to “weekend” athletes and products sold to sports teams. SI has

utilized which form of departmentalization?

A. Geographic

B. Customer

C. Functional

D. Matrix

19) The trait known as leadership motivation suggests that great leaders

A. can motivate others to work hard

B. can motivate others to become leaders

C. can motivate others to join

D. want to lead

20) A leadership perspective that attempts to identify what effective leaders do and the behaviors they exhibit is referred to as the

A. behavioral approach

B. trait approach

C. transformational leadership

D. strategic approach

21) __________ leadership invites colleagues at the same level to solve problems together.

A. Horizontal

B. Collegial

C. Lateral

D. Linear

22) Leaders who relate to others to serve their needs and enhance their personal growth while strengthening the organization are known as

A. lateral leaders

B. shared leaders

C. bridge leaders

D. servant-leaders

23) A shift in worker values toward personal time, quality of life, self-fulfillment, and family is occurring among

A. men

B. women

C. women and men

D. minorities

24) Future trends in the labor force include a

A. smaller labor force

B. more experienced labor force

C. more homogenous labor force

D. younger labor force

25) Behavior that gives purpose and meaning to organizations, while envisioning and creating a positive future, is known as

A. strategic leadership

B. supervisory leadership

C. organizational leadership

D. task leadership

26) The correspondence between actions and words that include characteristics such as honesty and credibility is known as

A. drive

B. self-confidence

C. knowledge of the business

D. integrity

27) Owners from two businesses have asked you which type of control system they should utilize. To help you make your decision, they have each provided a brief description of their organization. Alpha Omega, Inc., is a large corporation built in the 1950s. They produce chemical concentrates for industrial cleaning. Their organization uses a strict set of rules and regulations with their workforce. They have

the ability to track a large amount of data using statistical techniques. Mid-Atlantic Health is a regional medical center. They want to use a control system that will allow them to tie pricing of services and profits to specific services in the medical center. The control systems that should be used in the scenarios above were developed by

A. William Ouchi

B. Xerox

C. Frederick Taylor

D. Motorola

28) Your manager is speaking to a group of employees about a problem in your department. Employees are not complying with the rules regarding clocking in and clocking out each day. The rules in this situation are very important as employees will not receive their correct pay if the clocking procedures are not followed. There are three suggestions being considered to address this problem.

Employees will be monitored at the entrance during shift changes to make sure that each complies with the procedure.

Reports will be reviewed at the end of each pay period. The reports will contain data tracking the number of employees not complying with the procedures each shift. Employees violating the procedure will be counseled to correct the problem.

A new procedure will be developed describing an easier procedure for employees to follow. Training will be conducted so that each employee knows the policy and the procedure before it is enacted.

Option 1 describes which approach to bureaucratic control?

A. Feedback

B. Concurrent

C. Feedforward

D. Market

29) Suppose you are interviewing the CEO of a large company. The CEO is telling you about his or her job as a manager and how he or she spends time. Using the description below, which function of management is the CEO most likely describing in this example?

“My job, for some part of each day, is to empower our employees to think of things in new and different ways, not just to come to work and complete the tasks on a list.”

A. Organizing

B. Leading

C. Controlling

D. Decision making

30) Suppose you are interviewing the CEO of a large company. The CEO is telling you about his or her job as a manager and how he or she spends time. Using the description below, which function of management is the CEO most likely describing in this example?

“Every six months or so, my senior management team and I meet to discuss the goals that will be achieved over the next year, three years, and beyond. We then make sure we are clear on who will take responsibility to see that the appropriate actions are undertaken to achieve our goals within the time frame we set.”

A. Planning

B. Organizing

C. Leading

D. Decision making

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APRIL 23, 2015 WRITER1

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MGT 311 Final Exam

MGT 311 Final Exam

Rating A

1) In her work in the publishing industry, Vera seeks out new authors whom she considers promising. In the past 2 years she has found a number of new writers whose work she thought was exceptional, and immersed herself in the task of helping them shape their manuscripts for submission to her managers for publishing. Although she was extremely proud of the results, none of the authors she worked with were chosen for publication. Vera believes that the decision not to publish these authors was based on personal rivalries within management, rather than the quality of her writers’ work. She is extremely frustrated, dreads coming into work each morning, and is seriously thinking of resigning. How can Vera’s job attitude best be described?

A. Low job satisfaction and low job involvement

B. High job satisfaction and low job involvement

C. Low job satisfaction and high job involvement

D. High job satisfaction and high job involvement

2) Julia works as a receptionist at a real-estate company. Her boss just came in the door and yelled at her, telling her that the front office was a mess and that she needed to get up and clean it immediately. After her boss left the room, Julia grabbed three magazines and violently slammed them into the trash can. Which of the following best describes Julia’s action?

A. An affect

B. A thought

C. A mood

D. An emotion

3) Erin works on a software help desk. After being yelled at by a customer about the state of her company’s software, she becomes angry, and has to take a short break to calm down. What makes her anger an emotion, rather than a mood?

a. It is a simple, unambiguous feeling.

b. It interferes with her capacity to work effectively.

c. It has a contextual stimulus.

d. It can be controlled given some time.

4) Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes results in what?

a. organizational dissonance

b. cognitive dissonance

c. attitudinal clarification

d. values clarification

5) What is the degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance as being important to self-worth?

a. Job satisfaction

b. Job involvement

c. Job stability

d. Job enrichment

6) What term is used for those emotions that an organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate for a given job?

a. Felt emotions

b. Required emotions

c. Conditional emotions

d. Displayed emotions

7) Janet needs to assign a very important advertising account to one of her writers. First she reviewed each writers work load, then she studied the sales data of the products for the last three campaigns of each writer, then she reviewed each writer’s annual review to familiarize herself with their goals. Finally, she gave the account to Paula, a very creative, efficient writer who has had high sales results with her last three clients’ products. What is Janet’s management style is based on?

a) organizational behavioral studies

b) substantive evidence approach

c) preconceived notions

d) systematic study

8) Basing managerial methods on the best available scientific evidence is called what?

A. Systematic study

B. Organizational behavior

C. Evidence-based management

D. Conceptual management

9) The manager at a construction site observes that he is spending a great deal of time interviewing prospective employees. This is due to the large amount of absenteeism and turnover among his skilled workers. While questioning exiting employees, he discovers that many of them quit because they feel the work place is too dangerous. In particular, several foremen have stated that the need to get the job done quickly is more important than a few rules, and have gone as far as to mock the courage of workers who question this attitude. What is the best way for the manager to control the deviant behavior of the foremen?

A. Ordering the foremen to conform with the required safety standards

B. Finding out why the foremen place a greater importance on finishing the job than on safety

C. Firing the foremen and promoting new foremen from the current pool of workers

D. Taking over the work of the foreman himself

10) Phil loves sales. He has been a stellar sales person since he was 12. Recently he was awarded a full paid trip for two to Puerto Rico for breaking a company sales record. Phil is so motivated to work, he has set a new goal to break his old record in the coming year. Taking into account self-determination theory, why did the company recognition and award, an extrinsic reward, motivate Phil?

A. The reward was seen as a coercive method of increasing sales and motivated Phil to prove himself intrinsically.

B. The reward was imposed to work toward a standard that Phil could not believe in, and his intrinsic motivation suffered.

C. The reward increased Phil’s sense of competence by providing feedback that improved his intrinsic motivation.

D. The reward increased Phil’s sense of competence by providing feedback that diminished his intrinsic motivation.

11) Tony loves programming. He was on the ground level of the computer revolution. This year his boss has set personal goals for each of the programmers, one of which includes a presentation from each programmer about a project. Tony is very annoyed because he has a tremendous amount of work to do and he will have to spend the weekend, his personal time, preparing the presentation. Taking into account self-determination theory, why did his manager’s goals and the presentation reduce Tony’s motivation?

A. The internally imposed goal feels coercive, causing Tony’s intrinsic motivation to suffer.

B. The self-imposed goal increases his sense of competence, causing the intrinsic motivation to suffer.

C. The externally imposed goal is an external reward, causing Tony’s intrinsic motivation to increase.

D. The externally imposed goal feels coercive, causing Tony’s intrinsic motivation to suffer.

12) Glendon has a degree in business and worked for 2 years at an international firm in Spain. When the firm suffered cutbacks and Glendon returned home, he took a job at a nonprofit agency mentoring at-risk Spanish-speaking children. Glendon earns a third of what he earned in the business world, but has decided that his new goal is to acquire a larger case load and continue to use his Spanish to help people. Which theory explains why Glendon is happy with a much smaller external reward for his work?

A. Self-imposition of goals

B. nAch

C. Self-concordance

D. Extrinsic motivation

13) Today Marci’s boss entered her cubicle and told her that her work has been fantastic, and that because of her last project the client is going to give the company all of their business. Marci’s boss continued to talk about what a great job she’s doing. When her boss left, Marci felt very confident and satisfied with herself and her job. Marci’s boss uses communication in which of the following functions?

A. Motivation

B. Control

C. Emotional expression

D. Information

14) What can managers do to make sure that important information is not withheld from them through silence?

A. Listen to and support diverse opinions.

B. Deal with information overload.

C. Interpret what they see and call it reality.

D. Tell employees what they want to hear.

15) When Neal Patterson, CEO of Cerner Corporation, sent his seething e-mail to 400 managers, he erred by selecting the wrong

A. channel for his message

B. message

C. distribution

D. emotional charge

16) Araceli is a team member in a large corporation. She never speaks in the team meetings because she has seen members talk behind each others’ backs outside of the meetings. Members are constantly monitoring the other member’s work, looking for a mistake to point out in a meeting. According to the information provided, which contextual factor is most likely hindering the success of Araceli’s team?

A. Adequate resources

B. Climate of trust

C. Team structure

D. Performance evaluations

17) Ayesha is leading a group to develop a prototype for a new product. She has chosen three people to work with her. Ben and Tom are good friends and socialize on the weekend. They are both very creative. Julian is older than Ben and Tom, but they have worked together before and been quite productive. Julian is organized. Ayesha has never worked with any of the men, but knows the product well. She brings the highest level of expertise. Which of the following statements best describes Ayesha’s group?

A. High norms, low cohesiveness, high productivity

B. Low norms, low cohesiveness, low productivity

C. High norms, high cohesiveness, high productivity

D. Low norms, high cohesiveness, low productivity

18) Irma does not like a few of the standard operating procedures adapted for the new project. However, she discussed the items with the team and told them that she realized she was in the minority and that she would adapt the new procedures to maintain smooth operations within the team. What is this type of intention called?

A. Sacrificing

B. Accommodating

C. Collaborating

D. Compromising

19) Angelina feels that her cubicle neighbor talks too loudly on the phone, but in other ways she is a great neighbor. Angelina gets annoyed every time her neighbor’s phone rings, but she has decided it is simply not worth the trouble to talk to her neighbor. What is Angelina’s conflict intention called?

A. Avoiding

B. Accommodating

C. Compromising.

D. Collaborating

20) For process conflict to be productive, it must be

A. Kept high

B. Kept low

C. Kept at low to moderate levels

D. Kept at moderate levels

21) The right inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect orders to be obeyed is termed

A. chain of command

B. authority

C. power

D. unity of command

22) ________ are consistent with recent efforts by companies to reduce costs, cut overhead, speed up decision making, increase flexibility, get closer to customers, and empower employees.

A. Wider spans of control

B. Narrower spans of control

C. Matrix structures

D. Simple structures

23) What is the process through which employees are adapted to an organization’s culture?

A. Personalization

B. Mentoring

C. Socialization

D. Institutionalization

24) If there is a basic conflict between the individual’s expectations and the reality of working in an organization, the employee is most likely to be disillusioned and quit during which stage of socialization?

A. Prearrival

B. Ritual

C. Metamorphosis

D. Encounter

25) When your superior offers you a raise if you will perform additional work beyond the requirements of your job, he or she is exercising ________ power.

A. Legitimate

B. Coercive

C. Reward

D. Personal

26) Political behaviors usually

A. lie outside of an individual’s specified job performance

B. are counter productive to individual goals

C. are seen only in large organizations

D. are frowned upon by organizational leaders

27) Regardless of the composition of a group, managers can leverage diversity to achieve superior performance by which of the following approaches?

A. Emphasize the higher-level similarities among members.

B. Ensure that everyone knows the importance of diversity in groups.

C. Explain the legal and ethical implications involved of not having a diverse group.

D. Focus on the benefits of having a diverse group.

28) Effective workforce programs that encourage diversity have three distinct components. First, they inform managers about the legal framework for equal employment opportunities and encourage fair treatment. Second, they teach managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse market of customers and clients. Third, they

A. ensure top-level management represents the diversity of its workforce and client base

B. ensure that certain groups have not been underutilized

C. generally involve one-shot training sessions that don’t take up an undue amount of time

D. foster personal development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers

29) If individuals resisting change are included in making change decisions in an attempt to gain their support, what is this approach called?

A. Cooptation

B. Exploitation

C. Manipulation

D. Coercion

30) Which tactic to overcome resistance to change is a relatively easy way to gain the support of adversaries, but may backfire if the targets become aware of the tactic?

A. Conciliation

B. Manipulation

C. Coercion

D. Cooperation

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1. The module links to Plato’s “Euthyphro” where Socrates discovers that EITHER God’s will is arbitrary OR God is subject to forces beyond his own control. What do you think about this What People Believe about Morality and God In the Pew Research Center’s 2007 Global Attitudes Project, respondents in various parts of the world were asked whether they agreed or disagreed with the following statement: “It is necessary to believe in God in order to be moral and have good values.” Click here to see the 47-Nation Pew Global Attitudes Survey. What do you think could explain the pattern in the responses? During this module you are required to read the following in Ethical Choices: •Introduction, pp. 263-264 •Divine command theory, pp. 268-269 •An alternate dependency account, pp. 269-272 God as Creator in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam All cultures have a spiritual dimension. Their practices and beliefs express an area of concern that goes beyond the here and how. About 31% of the world population are Christians and 23% are Muslims. About 0.2% are Jewish. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam profess belief in a creator God. The word “god” capitalized is usually understood to refer specifically to such a being, rather than to spiritual forces or dimensions that are common to all human cultures. This module addresses some points that arise with the assumption of a creator God. If everything owes its existence or operation to God-as-creator, what implications does this have for the existence and force of standards, especially moral standards? Prevalence of Belief in God as Requirement for Morality As you have seen from the results of the Global Attitudes survey, many people do accept that belief in God is required to be moral. Looking at the charts, one can see that they tend to live in areas of the world where Christianity and Islam are influential. But not all people have this belief. One can infer, given the charts and information about population in various countries, that over 2 billion people do not believe that moral standards require the existence of God. However, currently, the greatest incidence of wars and wide-scale acts of atrocities happens to occur in countries in which the majority do profess belief in the existence of God, not in those that don’t. Divine Command Theory Is the good and the right something that all humans can uncover and live by, using human abilities, or are acting rightly and being good only really available to people who believe in a creator God? The issue cannot be resolved by polls or by looking at where people who believe in a creator God happen to live. This topic has actually been a matter of long-standing debate in Western philosophy and theology. The view that moral right and good depend on what God (understood as a creator God) commands is known as the Divine Command Theory William of Ockham and Divine Command Theory One of the strongest statements of this viewpoint was made by 13th-century philosopher and theologian William of Ockham. God’s will is unlimited. “God is under no obligation to no one; and He is neither bound to cause that act, nor the opposite act, nor not to cause it. And hence He does not sin, however much He may cause that act” (Ockham book 3). There is no standard that can be applied to God’s intentions and actions. Rather moral standards owe their force to God’s authority. Divine Command Theory and the Issue of Justifiability On this view, moral norms are not justifiable, but authoritative. Their authority derives its force from the supreme authority of the highest commander, God. However, moral norms are justifiable only if they can be supported by moral reasoning. A blanket assertion of authority does not count as justification. The Divine Command Theory does looks like it has a problem with the issue of justifiability. If you do something that God does not approve, you get punished. We have an aversion to punishment, so we will act in ways that God approves. That’s all there is to morals. If you recall our second module, this answer looks surprisingly similar to egoism: We act in ways that are approved of because we fear punishment. We really only care about ourselves. God Could Command Otherwise: Implication for Justifiability Ockham’s way out of this problem was in also admitting that God happens to have made matters such that we can understand what is right through the use of reason. So, using reason, we can come to understand God’s commands. However, Ockham also thought that, God being perfectly free, nothing prevents God from commanding that things could be otherwise. Think of the implication of this. Suppose Ockham is right. Imagine that people claim with sincerity that God has commanded that girls ought not get an education. They sincerely believe it is a moral imperative that they do everything in their power to prevent girls from getting an education, including throwing acid and shooting at them. If you believe in Divine Command Theory, how could you compellingly argue that they ought not commit these acts? Might not God have commanded that girls ought not get an education? How would you know? Euthyphro: The Virtue of Showing Reverence to the Gods One of the most influential discussions of the issue of the justifiability of norms is in Plato’s dialogue, Euthyphro. You have heard of the Socratic method. Reading Euthyphro will give you a good sense of what it was like, since it features Plato’s mentor, Socrates, at work doing the kind of thing for which he became famous: engaging others through discussion in trying to uncover what constitutes the excellence of a human being as member of a community. The aspect of human excellence that is pursued in this dialogue is the virtue of showing reverence to the Gods, piety, or holiness. Socrates believed that a full, concentrated focus on understanding what makes a virtue what it is, would be conducive to enacting it. The Unending Job of Delivering the Baby: The Definition of the Holy In the dialogue, Socrates plays the role of intellectual midwife. The “baby” to be delivered is the definition of the virtue of reverence for the gods, or holiness (or piety, depending on which translation you look at). Socrates firmly believes that there is such a thing as virtue, including the virtue of showing proper reverence to the divine. He himself does not know what the virtue of holiness is, but he is intent on finding it out. Pursuing an understanding of virtue is, for him, the most worthwhile pursuit of all. His job is to help a know-it-all pillar-of-the-community type, Euthyphro, come to greater clarity about what the virtue of showing proper reverence is. The discussion does not come to a definitive conclusion. But what Socrates achieves is helping others reexamine the things they take for granted. That is already a step on the road to human excellence. Relevance of Euthyphro for the Issue of the Justifiability of Moral Norms This dialogue is important for the process of reasoning it asks us to go through. You will see that the fact that the Ancient Greeks were polytheistic does not really affect the relevance of this debate for understanding the issue of the justifiability of moral norms. The dialogue places us squarely at the intersection between religious belief and moral standards since it asks what is the definition of the moral virtue of showing reverence for the gods. We will just look at a few of Euthyphro’s attempts to define what is the virtue of holiness or piety. Following Exemplary Behavior In seeking to put his finger on what, here is Euthyphro’s first attempt at putting his finger on what makes all and only acts of piety pious: “I say that the holy is what I am now doing, prosecuting the wrongdoer who commits murder or sacrilegious robbery, or sins in any point like that, whether it be your father, or your mother, or whoever it may be” (Plato 5d). We could already stop to reflect on the first part of the proposed definition: The holy is what I am now doing. This is similar to definitions you might be familiar with: The holy is whatever Jesus did or do what Jesus would do. The question arises: What part of the example would you be following? You would have to figure out what aspects of the example are relevant, so you would have to exercise judgment in interpreting examples. Socrates is asking for us to exercise our judgment. Following a List of Examples Euthyphro does not just tell people to follow his example, but also gives a list of examples of things that count as being holy actions. Here Socrates points out that Euthyphro gives us too much information, and information of the wrong kind. Ask yourself the question: How would we know how to complete the sequence that Euthyphro began? Do we include giving alms to the poor? How about blowing up skyscrapers? What Socrates was asking for is not a laundry list of holy acts, but the principle that would allow any one of us to construct such a list when we need to. What is it that all holy acts have in common? This is what Socrates is asking for. How would you answer Socrates’s challenge at this point? A First Stab at Finding a Principled Answer Euthyphro, rising to the challenge, comes up with the following definition: “What is pleasing to the gods is holy, and what is not pleasing to them is unholy” (Plato 7a). This might seem irrelevant to us. But it, and Socrates’s response, are directly relevant to us today. Socrates points out that there can be disagreement among the gods. For instance, to make up an example, what is pleasing to the god Zeus (making an offering to one of his many amorous conquests) would definitely not be pleasing to his wife, Hera. So the same act would be both holy and unholy. That is a contradiction. And contradictions show defects in either reasoning, assumptions, or both. The source of these defects must be rejected. So the definition proposed is to be rejected. The Relevance of Euthyphro’s First Attempt at a Principled Answer Suppose you say that this dialogue is irrelevant to true believers in the One God, creator of the universe. Nevertheless, something very similar crops up even among believers in the creator God. Imagine two individuals, A and B, debating what it is that pleases God. In A’s interpretation of what pleases God, it pleases God that we not blow up skyscrapers. In B’s interpretation, it pleases God that we do blow up skyscrapers. So the very same act is holy and unholy. Again, we are led to the same conclusion: We must reject the source of the contradiction; there must be something odd in the proposed definition of holiness. A Second Stab at Finding a Principled Answer Euthyphro, getting the hang of things, now proposes a definition aimed at avoiding contradiction.” The definition will restrict itself to acts that all gods agree to either approve or disapprove. The revised definition is the most famous one: “I would indeed affirm that holiness is what the gods all love, and its opposite is what the gods all hate, unholiness” (Plato 9e). Among believers in the one true God, creator of the universe, this is equivalent to restricting the definition of the holy to what both A and B agree on. Socrates Still Searching For What Makes Something Holy Socrates’s intervention at this point is often called the “Euthyphro Dilemma,” although it is not a dilemma for Socrates. Socrates is looking for that characteristic that makes all holy acts and only holy acts, holy. Acts might have all sorts of characteristics. They might be done slowly, frequently, in the evenings, in the presence of many people, few people, etc. Are any of these characteristics (being slow, frequent, occurring in the evenings, being done in the presence of many people, few people, etc.) absolutely required for an act to be holy, or are they just incidental? Think of an example of a holy action. What absolutely must be part of it; what can be omitted without loss? (If you can’t answer the question, that’s all right.) Socrates’s Famous Questioning of Euthyphro’s Proposed Definition Socrates is looking for what belongs to holiness “on its own.” Let us consider the following example to help drive the point. It happens to be true that horses like oats. Suppose we define “oats” as what is liked by horses. Socrates would object that this characterization does not tell us what belongs to oats on their own. There is something that makes oats be what they are, and it is because oats are what they are that horses like oats. We must search for what it is about oats that makes them be oats “on their own.” Euthyphro’s Proposed Definition Although this is a cute example (Socrates did not talk about oats and horses), it is meant to drive a very serious point home: Socrates points out an inherent ambiguity in Euthyphro’s definition of the holy. Socrates is looking for a definition of the holy that captures what the holy is on its own, whether it is liked or approved or not. Whatever makes the holy be liked or approved must belong to the holy as holy. Euthyphro’s definition does not deliver the goods because his definition can be interpreted to mean that the holy is holy just because it is approved by the authority of all divine forces in agreement. This is basically the position of the Divine Command Theorist. The Divine Command Theorist would define the holy as what is approved by the one true creator of the universe. The Pursuit of Excellence For Socrates, such an answer is deeply unsatisfactory. Human excellence is served only if we pursue the answer further. Refusing to pursue the matter beyond the assertion of authority, even divine authority, is giving up on the pursuit of excellence. Euthyphro gets the point and tries to come up with a definition of the holy in and of itself. The discussion gets bogged down, and no satisfactory definition is found. But we have learned something important. Even if, and especially if, we do not find the answer to our quest for defining the holy, human excellence rests in the process of looking for the answer. It arises in the concentrated attention in seeking what the holy is “on its own.” What do you think?

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MGT 330 Final Exam

MGT 330 Final Exam

Rating A

1) Which of the following functions of management is focused on delivering strategic value?

A. Planning

B. Organizing

C. Leading

D. Controlling

2) Which of the following best characterizes the controlling function of management?

A. Motivating people to be high performers

B. Assigning job responsibilities and allocating resources

C. Monitoring performance and implementing changes as necessary

D. Analyzing current situations and formulating business strategies

3) __________ involves analyzing a

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