FALL 2016


Master of Business Administration- MBA




IB0018 – Export-Import Finance





Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Question. 1. Discuss the role of EXIM bank in promoting foreign trade.

Answer: The main objective of Export-Import Bank (EXIM Bank) is to provide financial assistance to promote the export production in India. The financial assistance provided by the EXIM Bank widely includes the following:

Direct financial assistance

Foreign investment finance

Term loaning options for export production and export development

Pre-shipping credit

Buyer’s credit

Lines of credit

Reloaning facility

Export bills rediscounting

Refinance to commercial banks

The Export-Import Bank also provides non-funded facility in the form of guarantees to the Indian exporters.

Various Stages of Exports Covered by EXIM Bank-

Development of export makers

Expansion of export production capacity

Production for exports

Financing post-shipment activities

Export of manufactured goods

Export of projects

Export of technology and softwares

Forms of Financial Assistance Provided by EXIM Bank to Indian Companies-

Delayed Payment Exports- Term loans are provided to those exporters who deal with exporting of goods and services and this enables them to offer delayed credit to the foreign buyers. This system of deferred credit covers Indian consultancies, technology, and other services. Commercial banks take part in this program either directly or under risk syndication arrangements.

Pre-shipment credit-Indian companies which are highly involved in the execution of export activities beyond the cycle time of six months are funded by EXIM Bank. The construction or turnkey project exporters enjoy the provision of rupee mobilization.

Term loans for export production- EXIM Bank offers term loans to the 100 percent export oriented units, units involved in free trade zones, and exporters of various softwares in India. EXIM bank also works in association with International Finance Corporation, Washington, to provide financial assistance to the small scale and medium industrial units in terms of ameliorating the export production capacity of these units in India. EXIM Bank also provides funded and non- funded facilities to deemed exports from India.

Foreign Investment Finance- EXIM bank provides financial assistance for equity contribution to the Indian companies who form Joint Venture with the foreign companies.

Financing export marketing-It helps the exporters carry out their export market development plan in Indian market.

Financial Assistance Provided by EXIM Bank to Overseas Companies-

Foreign Buyer’s Credit- the foreign players are entitled to a sum of financial assistance in order to import goods and services on deferred payments.

Lines of Credit- EXIM bank also offers financial assistance to the overseas financial institutions and various government agencies for import of goods and services from India.

Reloaning Options to Foreign Banks- The foreign banks are entrusted with funding from EXIM bank in order to provide the same to the their clients across the globe for importing of goods from India.

Role Of Exim Bank: Exim Bank plays a four-pronged role with regard to India’s foreign trade: those of a coordinator, a source of finance, consultant and promoter.

Coordination Role: Exim Bank is the Coordinator of the Working Group Mechanism for clearance of Project & Services Exports and Deferred Payment Exports (for amounts above a certain value – currently Rs. 200 crores). The Working Group comprises Exim Bank, Government of India representatives (Ministries of Finance, Commerce), Reserve Bank of India, Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Ltd. And commercial banks who are authorised Group accords clearance to contracts (at the post-award stage) sponsored by commercial banks and Exim Bank and operates as a one-window mechanism for clearance of term export proposals. On its own, Exim Bank can now accord clearance to project export proposals up to Rs. 200 crores in value.

Financing Services: Exim Bank offers a diverse range of financing services for the Indian exporter, including a variety of Export Credit facilities and Finance for Export Oriented Companies.

Export Credits: Exim Bank offers the following Export Credit facilities, which can be availed of by Indian companies, commercial banks and overseas entities.

Question. 2. Explain the Mechanism for Disbursal of Pre Shipment Finance?

Answer: Packing credit is nothing but a pre shipment finance given to exporters with a law interest rate to boost exports. Packing credit is given by authorized bank by the instruction of Reserve Bank as a government policy to promote exporters to earn foreign currency to strengthen financial status of a country.

As per Reserve Bank by the instruction of Government, no exporter shall suffer for want of fund for exports. Government promotes all exporters to earn foreignPacking Credit exchange and extend maximum support to encourage exports. Packing credit is a pre shipment finance given by bank to procure raw materials and arranging goods ready for export. Banks provide packing credit against the stock of raw materials or finished goods also in certain cases. The packing credit is a separate finance given to exporters not connected with any limit of other loans given by bank. A separate packing credit loan account is opened for each exporter separately if needed. Once the amount of shipment received from the overseas buyer, the said packing credit amount will be adjusted by bank and close the loan under the said export order.

In order to obtain packing credit facility, the exporter has to approach their bank with export order. Bank official visits the exporter’s factory and get convinced on the sock of goods and assess the value with export order. Packing credit loan is one of the best financial assistance by bank to promote the export trade.

The basic purpose of Packing Credit Finance is to enable the exporter to procure, process, manufacture or store the goods for export. Packing credit refers to the credit granted by bank to an exporter to enable him to pack the goods. This is short-term working capital advance.

What is the eligibility to apply for a Packing Credit by an Exporter: Any exporter who has a confirmed export order or irrevocable Letter of Credit (LC) can apply for a Packing Credit Loan from his banker. Packing credit loan is sanctioned only on receipt of confirmed export order or irrevocable letter or credit. In the absence of confirmed order or letter of credit, packing credit may be sanctioned by the bank based on the cable provided minimum details of description of goods, quantity, value and name of overseas buyer are available. The regular order or letter of credit has to follow subsequently.

The persons who are eligible for packing credit are Export/Trading/Star Trading /Super Star Trading House or exporter who has received the letter of credit or confirmed export order from the overseas buyer directly and Supplier of goods or supporting manufacture of the export house who has not received the export contract directly but would be executing the contract through the export house. In such an event, he has to produce the letter from the export house or exporter indicating the details of the order received such as description of goods, quantity and value with an undertaking that the export house or exporter would not avail the packing credit to the extent mentioned in the letter. In this case, the export house or exporter and supporting supplier would share the total pre-shipment finance eligible for executing the export order to obtain packing credit.

What is the reason to release Packing Credit to Exporters: The reason of Financing Packing credit is a purpose- oriented advance. The packing credit is made available for the purpose of purchasing raw materials and supplies for manufacturing or producing goods or purchasing goods, processing costs, packing, packaging and warehousing etc. This is short-term advance.

Packing Credit Finance is released in what forms: Pre-shipment finance is both a fund based and non-fund-based advance. Form of packing credit advance is dependent upon the stage of execution of export order. This assumes the form of a loan when the purpose is for purchase of raw materials, manufacture of goods and other incidental costs, prior to shipment of goods. The bank release Packing Credit loan from time to time, based on the request letter of the applicant of packing credit and requirement stage. Non-fund based Packing Credit advance can be in the form of letter of credit, domestic as well as import and issue of various types of guarantee etc.

What is the security requirements under Packing Credit: Packing credit advance can be clean or secured. When the raw materials are not acquired, it can be clean in the initial stages. When the goods are physically possessed and title to the goods is acquired, exporter can pledge or hypothecate the goods to the bank, then the advance becomes secured either in the form of packing credit pledge account or packing credit hypothecation account.

What about quantum of Finance in Packing Credit: There is no fixed formula in respect of quantum of Packing Credit finance. The basic principle is that packing credit advance should be adequate for the exporter to execute the order. Packing credit is, generally, sanctioned the extent of domestic cost of production or FOB value of export order, whichever is lower.

Any margin is required to be maintained by Exporter to obtain Packing Credit loan: There are no fixed norms in respect of margin to obtain Packing Credit loan. However, banks stipulate margin, while sanctioning limits both for fund based and non-fund based. The basic intention of the bank is to ensure business sense and consciousness in the exporter, protect the of banks if erosion happens in the value of goods charged to the bank and not to finance the profit component in the export contract. It is normal that no business firm accepts any contract without profit margin.

What is the Period of Packing Credit Finance: Banks sanction packing credit facility initially, for a period of 180 days, subject to the period involved in production cycle. The exporter may seek sanction of extended period of 90 days in case of circumstances, beyond the control of exporter. Banks normally approve additional period of loan subject to production revalidated export order or letter of credit by the exporter.

Question. 3. What are the various trade financing schemes?

Answer:Trade finance signifies financing for trade, and it concerns both domestic and international trade transactions. A trade transaction requires a seller of goods and services as well as a buyer. Various intermediaries such as banks and financial institutions can facilitate these transactions by financing the trade.

While a seller (or exporter) can require the purchaser (an importer) to prepay for goods shipped, the purchaser (importer) may wish to reduce risk by requiring the seller to document the goods that have been shipped. Banks may assist by providing various forms of support. For example, the importer’s bank may provide a letter of credit to the exporter (or the exporter’s bank) providing for payment upon presentation of certain documents, such as a bill of lading. The exporter’s bank may make a loan (by advancing funds) to the exporter on the basis of the export contract.

Other forms of trade finance can include Documentary Collection, Trade Credit Insurance, Factoring or forfaiting. Some forms are specifically designed to supplement traditional financing.

Secure trade finance depends on verifiable and secure tracking of physical risks and events in the chain between exporter and importer. The advent of new information and communication technologies allows the development of risk mitigation models which have developed into advance finance models. This allows very low risk of advance payment given to the Exporter, while preserving the Importer’s normal payment credit terms and without burdening the importer’s balance sheet. As trade transactions become more flexible and increase in volume, demand for these technologies has grown.

Bank Scheme

Financial Institution


Scheme Description

Bank Schemes Link

Export Finance Schemes

Export Import Bank of India

General Export Credits

Pre-shipment credit, Supplier’s Credit, Guarantee Facilities, For Exporters of Consultancy and Technological Services, For Project Exporters

Link to Bank’s Scheme

Export Finance Schemes

Export Import Bank of India

SME Export Credit

Exim Bank provides pre shipment and post shipment credit in Indian rupees and foreign currency

Link to Bank’s Scheme

Export Finance Schemes


Export Credit Scheme

Pre-shipment Credit and Post-shipment Credit for export sector

Link to Bank’s Scheme

Export Finance Schemes


Export Bill Negotiation

Receive payment as soon as your goods have been shipped simply on the basis of your trade transaction documents.

Link to Bank’s Scheme

Export Finance Schemes

Punjab National Bank

PNB Expo Gold Card

The scheme ensures easy availability of export credit on best terms, to credit worthy exporters with good track record

Link to Bank’s Scheme

Export Finance Schemes

Yes Bank

Trade Finance

Trade finance schemes and trade services offered by the Bank’s trade finance experts to provide customized solutions to suit to the customer’s financial supply chain, Credit backed structures Channel Finance/ Vendor Financing/ Supplier Financing Local bill discounting/ Invoice Financing.

Link to Bank’s Scheme

Shops & Traders


Sulabh Vyapar Business Solutions

The product aims to provide hassle free finance to traders and to meet their business and financial needs at competitive interest rate

Link to Bank’s Scheme

Shops & Traders

State Bank of Travancore

Shoppe Special

To meet credit requirement for purchase of new/old shops/offices. Expansion/ Alteration /Modernisation/ Renovation/ face lifting ofshops/ Service Centers/ garages /Building for consultants/ Chartered Accountants/ practising doctors All furniture/ fixtures, electrical fittings and other accessories required for the show room/ office/ shops.

Link to Bank’s Scheme

Shops & Traders

IndusInd Bank

Traders Advances

Working Capital limits to small traders and businessmen on the basis of turnover and other parameters

Link to Bank’s Scheme

Shops & Traders

State Bank of Travancore

Traders Special

Working Capital credit to traders with the support of recognised associations of traders.

Link to Bank’s Scheme

Question. 4. What are the various Risks Coverage under ECGC Policies? Discuss in detail.

Answer: Risks covered by Standard Policies fall into two categories – Commercial Risks and Political Risks.

Commercial Risks which includes Insolvency of the buyer, Protracted default in payment ( Importer has to pay within four months of due date) and Under special circumstances specified in the policy, buyer’s failure to accept the goods though there is no fault on the part of exporter.

Political Risks

What are the clauses included in Political Risks under policies issued by ECGC?

There are mainly 6 types of covers included under political risks policies under ECGC.

(i) Imposition of restrictions in buyer’s country by the Government for remittance sale proceeds which may block or delay the payment to the exporter;

(ii) War, revolution or civil disturbances in the buyer’s country;

(iii) New import restrictions in the buyer’s country of cancellation of valid import license after the date of shipment or contract, as applicable;

(iv) Cancellation of valid export license or imposition of new licensing restrictions after the date of contract, applicable under Contracts Policy;

(v) Payment of additional transportation and insurance charges occasioned by interruption or diversion of voyage which can not be recovered from the buyer and

(vi) Any other loss that has occurred in buyer’s country, which is not covered under general insurance and beyond the control of exporter and / or the buyer.

In case, where the buyer happens to be foreign Government or Government department and it refuses to pay, the default will fall under the category of political risks.

What are the risks not covered under standard policies of Export Credit Guarantee Corporation ECGC?

Commercial disputes including the quality disputes raised by the buyer, unless the exporter obtains a decree from a competent court in the importer’s country in his favor;

Causes inherent in the nature of the goods;

Buyer’s failure to obtain import license or exchange authorization in his country;

Insolvency or default of an agent of the exporter or the collecting banks;

Losses or damages which can be covered by commercial insurers; and

Foreign Exchange fluctuations.

ECGC does not cover those risks that are covered by the commercial insurers. Exporter can take comprehensive policy that covers both commercial and political risks. If the exporter wants, he can take only policy that covers political risks, depending on the requirements. However, it is important to note ECGC does not issue the policy covering only commercial risks.

If the goods are confiscated by the customs on charges of smuggling, then insurance does not cover.

Important Obligations of the Exporter:

Obtaining valid credit limit on buyers and banks from ECGC.

Premium is payable in advance before commencement of risks and sufficient premium deposit is also to be maintained in advance based on the turnover projection at all times during the policy.

Submission of Monthly declaration of shipments by 15th of the subsequent month

Notifying/Declaration of payments for bills that have remained unpaid beyond 30 days from its due date of payment, by the 15th of the subsequent month.

Filing of claim within 360 days from the due date of the export bill or 540 days from expiry date of the Policy Cover whichever is earlier.

Initiating recovery steps including legal action.

Sharing of recovery.


Higher percentage of cover.

Competitive premium rate.

No Claim Bonus (NCB) of 5% subject to no claim, upto a maximum of 50%.

Discrepancy covers for L/C transactions subject to certain conditions.

Automatic cover for resale/reshipment up to 25% of Gross Invoice Value(GIV).

Availability of Discretionary Limits on buyers on conditions.

Cover for Merchanting trade with prior approval by an endorsement.

Question. 5. Discuss the Methods of Import Finance And Import Financing Schemes.

Answer: Export-Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank) is a specialized financial institution, wholly owned by Government of India, set up in 1982, for financing, facilitating and promoting foreign trade of India. Including the share capital of ` 1,300 crore received during the year from Government of India, the paid up capital as on March 31, 2015, stood at ` 5,059 crore and the Net Worth stood at ` 9,902 crore. Profit after tax of the Bank for the year 2014-15 amounted to ` 726 crore.

EXIM Bank extends Lines of Credit (LOCs) to overseas financial institutions, regional development banks, sovereign governments and other entities overseas, to enable buyers in those countries to import developmental and infrastructure projects, equipments, goods and services from India, on deferred credit terms. EXIM Bank has laid strong emphasis on enhancing project exports, the funding options for which have been enhanced with introduction of the Buyer’s Credit-National Export Insurance Account (BC-NEIA) program. The Bank facilitates two-way technology transfer by financing import of technology into India, and investment abroad by Indian companies for setting up joint ventures, subsidiaries or undertaking overseas acquisitions. To promote hi-tech exports from India, the Bank has a lending programme to finance research and development (R&D) activities of export-oriented companies. During the year ended 31st March, 2015, EXIM Bank sanctioned loans of ` 57,684 crore, while disbursements amounted to ` 38,508 crore. Loan Assets stood at ` 86,953 crore as on March 31, 2015.

During the year, the Bank issued India’s first USD denominated Green bonds with a benchmark size of US$500 million. During the year, an Export Development Fund [EDF] facility, a special fund, established by GoI under the Exim Bank Act and administered by Exim Bank, to sanction loans in the interest of international trade towards meeting strategic objectives was put to use. Exim Bank under the GoI’s ‘Act East Initiative’ undertook a Mission to CLMV countries, consequent to which a Project Development Company is being set up, to be followed by a Project Development and Facilitation Framework. Exim Bank, IL&FS, AfDB and SBI jointly floated a Project Development Company in Africa, based in Mauritius. The Bank has entered into a Cooperation Agreement on Innovation with the four major development Banks of the BRICS countries which is expected to promote intra-BRICS cooperation in innovation financing. The Bank, with its diverse programmes, caters to different segments of exporters and the export cycle. The Bank provides assistance in helping Indian firms in their globalization efforts by locating overseas distributor(s)/ buyer(s)/ partner(s) for their products and services. Exim Bank also lays special emphasis on enhancing export capabilities and international competitiveness of Indian companies through its various Advisory Services.

Here are three possible methods of financing your import business.:

Asset-Based Loan: Factoring accounts receivable is simply selling your credit accounts or accounts receivable to a commercial finance company, bank, or other financing company. Accounts receivable are sold at a discount, usually 80-90% of the face value of your credit accounts. The factoring company gives you an advance payment, for a small fee of 2-3%, for the accounts you would normally have to wait on for payment.

Use Inventory: Even though inventory financing can be expensive, it is a very effective way of financing this type of business activity. You use your current inventory to secure a loan to allow you to buy the imported goods your customers desire. This allows you to increase your inventory without impacting your cash flow as long as you think you can service your debt.There are three types of inventory financing you can pursue depending on your needs. You can use a blanket inventory lien, floor planning, or field warehousing.

Purchase Order Financing: This is similar to factoring your accounts receivables. It goes one step further. You take your invoices or purchase orders and assign or sell them to a commercial finance company, which assumes the risk and the task of billing and collecting. After the products are manufactured, the commercial finance company collects from the customers, takes its cut of the proceeds, and pays you the profit. Purchase order financing is certainly not as cheap as a bank loan. If banks aren’t loaning money, however, it is an option. If your profit margin is high enough on the goods you are importing, then purchase order financing may be for you. It is important, with purchase order financing, that you have a good supply chain and creditworthy customers.

Question. 6. What is Foreign Exchange Market? Discuss the Participants in Foreign Exchange Markets?

Answer: Central banks are often involved in maintaining foreign reserve volumes in order to meet certain economic goals. For example, ever since pegging its currency (the yuan) to the U.S. dollar, China has been buying up millions of dollars worth of U.S.Treasury bills in order to keep the yuan at its target exchange rate. Central banks use the foreign exchange market to adjust their reserve volumes. They have extremely deep pockets, which allow them to have a significant impact on the currency markets.

Banks and Other Financial Institutions: Along with central banks and governments, some of the largest participants involved with forex transactions are banks. Most people who need foreign currency for small-scale transactions, like money for travelling, deal with neighborhood banks. However, individual transactions pale in comparison to the dollars that are traded between banks, better known as the interbank market. Banks make currency transactions with each other on electronic brokering systems that are based on credit. Only banks that have credit relationships with each other can engage in transactions. The larger banks tend to have more credit relationships, which allow those banks to receive better foreign exchange prices. The smaller the bank, the fewer credit relationships it has and the lower the priority it has on the pricing scale.

Forex Market Participants

Consumers and Travelers

Consumers may purchase goods in a foreign country or via the internet with their credit card.

The amount consumers pay in the foreign currency will be converted to their home currency on their credit card statement.

Travelers must go to a bank or currency exchange bureau to convert one currency (their “home” currency) into another (the “destination” currency) when using cash to pay for goods and services in a foreign country.

Travelers need to be aware of exchange rates to ensure they receive a fair deal.


Businesses often need to convert currencies when they conduct trade outside their home country.

Large companies need to convert huge amounts of currency; a multinational company such as General Electric (GE) for instance, converts tens of billions of dollars each year.

Investors and Speculators

Investors and speculators require currency exchange whenever they deal in any foreign investment, be it equities, bonds, bank deposits, or real estate.

Investors and speculators also trade currencies in an attempt to benefit from movements in the currency exchange markets.

Commercial and Investment Banks

Commercial and investment banks trade currencies as a service to their commercial banking, deposit, and lending customers.

These institutions also participate in the currency market for hedging and speculative purposes.

Governments and Central Banks

Governments and central banks trade currencies to improve economic conditions or to intervene in an attempt to adjust economic or financial imbalances.

Because they are non-profit, governments and central banks do not trade with the intention of earning a profit, but because they tend to trade on a long-term basis, it is not unusual for some trades to earn revenue.

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