The Second World War and the

relatively buoyant economy succeeded it to bring about a more relaxed

attitude to gambling. The Commission also provides independent advice to government

on gambling in Britain.

Betting had always been part of rural sports, both those involving

animals and those involving contests between men. Similarly, the

Comprehensive Internet Gambling Prohibition Act of 2002 (s 3006) was

proposed to prohibit all Internet gambling. Application fees for

general betting standard licence holders in categories A-C are set at

the same level for those providing gaming machines and those who


(20) www.gamblingappealstribunal.gov.uk

Growth in Popularity

New Types of Licence

As a result senior executives at the companies involved were called

in and asked to take immediate action to improve matters. Gambling was endemic in the 18th Century Britain, but before

1850 a puritanical reaction had begun, aimed at working class betting.

The greatest achievement of the anti-gambling lobby was probably the

Street Betting Act 1906, but it remained a powerful and influential

opponent certainly up until the second Royal Commission on the subject

in 1949. For instance, one can serve as a ‘bookmaker’, offering

odds to other Internet users concerning a sports competition or

event. These exercise will revisit operators already

tested and also test a number of smaller betting operators. In 1934 those companies founding the Pools

Promoters’ Association had a turnover of about [pounds sterling]8

million which had increased by 1938 to [pounds sterling]22 million of

which the promoters retained a little over 20%.

(12) www.thejockeyclub.co.uk/jockeyclub/ html/racing/gambling.htm.

The new legislation has gone some way to assist continued and

escalating concerns in the gambling and betting world.

Laws and restrictions vary from country to country – some may let

members bet higher or more over a period of time, where they may be

limits in some countries due to the worry of developing gambling

addictions or debt. The Commission also wrote to all other betting operators

highlighting their findings and subsequent concerns.

A continued worry in horse racing has been the relationship between

gambling and organised crime with the Jockey Club issuing a statement to

the Gambling Review Body:

At a time when the administration of sport has become complex

coupled with the vast amount of money flowing into sport and generating

from sport, it is essential that more effective regulatory frameworks

are developed in the sporting world to counter the impact of gambling on

particular sports and players. The National Lottery will not be expanded on

other than to say an independent study, British Survey of Children, the

National Lottery and Gambling 2008-09, is the only British underage

research of its kind and was commissioned by the National Lottery

Commission to test the effectiveness of Camelot’s child protection

measures. This has

included the Jockey Club and ATP, whose security departments will

have access to individual identities and betting records of Betfair

gamblers when a race or match produces unusual betting patterns or

competition results.

Betfair points out that by developing internal policing relationships

with relevant sport governing bodies, sports corruption will be

deterred because electronic transactional records will help

investigators catch any wrongdoers, and, therefore create ‘safe’

Internet gambling sites. The government did not

introduce a tax on gambling on horse racing until 1966. New legislation was introduced in the autumn of 2004 to liberalise the regulatory framework in the UK. Principal concerns

stem from the fact that, by comparison with other forms of gaming and

gambling, the business of bookmaking (including spread betting) is

under-regulated and lacks the necessary measures to deter corruption

and thus renders racing vulnerable to malpractice.

There is evidence that racing is being used for money laundering

purposes. While sports leagues welcome the popularity that gambling

provides, they must guard against match fixing, point shaving and

bribery of athletes and referees because the public appeal of sport

also rests on the integrity of the contest.

Computers, technologies and the Internet have facilitated a

sophisticated and popular way to gamble on sports events known as

‘betting exchanges.’ In essence, betting exchanges allows people to

swap bets. As well as this, there is the key issue of the age

restrictions on a gambler – a player must be over the age of 18 to

legally gamble in the UK, but lax variations and the ability for younger

and younger people to possess credit cards has caused great ripples in

the online gambling world, with reports recently of children as young as

11 having the ability to sign up to online gambling sites.

New Licence Fee Categories and Changes in Banding

It has been well document that there are still a number of

licensees working without a licence. (10) Until recently the law on betting was to be found in the

Betting, Gaming and Lotteries Act 1963, which, despite its title, no

longer deals with gaming and lotteries. But

if, in the coming months, it becomes clear that it is not working then I

will not hesitate to bring in a statutory levy. As part of

the ongoing programme, the Commission is planning a similar exercise on

Adult Gaming Centres. Under the new gambling laws in the UK vetting will be

thorough, involving completion of forms, investigation and review by the

Commission’s Inspectorate and other staff, and where appropriate,


. As a keen race-goer, I will relish

the opportunity to make a contribution to the sport. To acquire this they

will have to undergo a three part “fit and proper” test along

the lines now applicable to casinos.

Newspapers began publishing their own pool coupons (until the

Courts declared the practice illegal in 1928) and individual bookmakers

offered a variety of betting opportunities. Players know what to expect and are not exploited; and

In May 2009 a mystery shopping exercise undertaken by the

Commission throughout England revealed a disturbing failure rate. The

exercise covered all the major betting operators, accounting for around

80% of betting shops, and the initial results showed that in 98% of the

100 shops visited a 17 year old was allowed to place a bet at the


The Royal Commission was in favour of the provisions of legal

facilities for betting off the course and the licence betting shop reappeared in 1960, 107 years after it had first been made illegal. By the end of the

1920′s, the football pools, and particularly Littlewoods (5) under

the entrepreneurial guidance of the Moores brothers, had begun to

thrive. Is the applicant suitable

to take a role in the industry? Secondly, does the applicant have

adequate financial resources? Thirdly, is the applicant appropriately

knowledgeable and professionally competent?

The Responsibility in Gambling Trust (RIGIT)26 will continue to

raise funds from the gambling industry and are committed to rising over

[pounds sterling]5 million every year from now until 20012/13. A new

body the Responsible Gambling Fund has been set up to distribute the

money wisely and effectively in line with public policies set by the

Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

(2) According to Dr Anne Wright CBE, Chair of the National Lottery

Commission there is a continuing decline in underage play which shows an

effective regulatory framework together with a socially responsible

operator making it very difficult for children to access National

Lottery products.

In a press release issued by the Department for Culture, Media and

Sport on 9 June 2009 detailing the new regime Mr Sutcliffe said:

1. Today the Test and County

Cricket Board (TCCB) has a regulation forbidding players to gamble on

matches in which they take part. With this in mind the all

efforts from the Department for Culture, Media and Sport and the

Commission together with all other regulating and assisting bodies must

work proactively and together to minimise the possibility of corruption

in sport from inside the game to the lay person.

The first part of the “fit and proper” test issued under

new gambling laws is to do with probability. They will also have broader powers

including powers to impose fines and commence prosecution under the new

gambling laws in the UK.

The gambling laws in the UK may have relaxed however new changes

will have a big impact on the gaming industry especially for bookmakers.

“We have already received hundreds of applications but we

believe there are still people out there who need to apply. The ban remains on broadcast advertising of

betting offices.

Personal Licences

The Street Betting Act of 1906 has gained some notoriety as an

example of class biased legislation. This includes the Professional and Amateur Sports

Protection Act of 1992 (28 USC ss3702) that prohibits the expansion

of state-sanctioned, authorised, or licensed gambling on amateur and

professional sporting events in the United States. Organisations include The Financial Services

Authority, (16) The British Horseracing Authority, (17) The National

Lottery Commission, (18) Ofcom (19) and the Gambling Appeals Tribunal.


(26) The Responsibility in Gambling Trust (RIGT) was established in

2002 and since May 2009, following an organisational restructure, it has

concentrated solely on fundraising. (9) Specialist companies now operate to give advice

and odds. London

will host the 2012 Olympics, Glasgow has the 2014 Commonwealth Games and

England is bidding to host the 2018 World Cup. Gambling remains crime free;

Each licence holder will receive notice of the change to the annual

fee in writing from the Commission. The Gambling Commission (the Commission) regulates gambling in

the public interest. Any operator who considers the

changes detailed below will alter their licence category or type are

able to contact the Commission.

(14) Gardiner, S and Gray, J, ‘Can sport control its betting

habit?’ (2004) 89Sports Business International 55.

Gardiner, S and Gray, J, ‘Can Sport Control its Betting


By the mid-19th century betting and sport were firmly established.

Gambling was typical of a corrupt aristocracy and it was simply up to

them if they chose to lose ‘everything’ gambling. and Welch, R., Sports

Law (2005), 3rd Ed, Cavendish Publishing

London: The Stationary Office.

Sports Minister Gerry Sutcliffe announced on 9 June 2009 a new

voluntary funding arrangement to bring in at least [pounds sterling]15

million over the next three years for research, education and treatment

of problem gambling.

(4) Aristocrats bet on their footmen and promoted the races.

(13) soccernet.espn.go.com/zoneindex?cc=5739.

Recently Paul Lee, a senior partner and Board Chairman at Addleshaw

Goddard LLP, was appointed as the new Chair of the Horserace Betting

Levy Board taking up over the post from Robert Hughes CBE on 1 October

2009 for a four year term.

1. A new fee arrangement is introduced for off-course

bookmakers who do not provide gaming machines on their licensed betting


All fee bandings that are set with reference to gross gambling

yield, gross gaming yield and gross value of sales will be increased by

10% to reflect changes in prices since their original establishment.

There has been a 10% increase in the fee bandings for external lottery

managers and an anomaly in them has been corrected.

Cricket was another rural pastime that the landed bucks found

attractive. It does so by keeping crime out of gambling, by

ensuring that gambling is conducted fairly and openly, and by protecting

children and vulnerable people from being harmed or exploited by

gambling. When betting shops were

legalised the government established a Horseracing Betting Levy Board,

allegedly to compensate racecourses for the fall in attendance that

would come. It is alleged that tennis players

have been able to profit from insider information concerning their


Betfair has responded to these concerns by signing a ‘Memo – randum

of Understanding’ with several sports governing bodies. No person under 18 years of age may be admitted to a

betting office.

(8) Mason, T, Sport in Britain (1988), London: Faber Faber,

pp 59-68.

(15) www.gamblingcommission.gov.uk.

(25) New Levy Board Chair Appointed, No 111/09, 5 August 2009;

Horserace Betting Levy Board.

Betting on horses was also commonplace, often taking the form of

individual challenges between members of the landed gentry. Six

years later the government’s betting duty reappeared too.

Under these new laws in the UK betting operators will require an

operating licence from the Gambling Commission. Betting is not defined by

statute, but is generally regarded as entering into a contract by which

each party undertakes to forfeit to the other, money or money’s

worth if an issue in doubt at the time of the contract, is determined in

accordance with that other party’s forecast. When the

poor were led to emulate them however it was widely agreed that

something had to be done. With money at stake it was important to reduce the chances

of disagreement by drawing up a body of rules and regulations by which

both sides would abide.

Gambling and Sport

The recently created Responsible Gambling Strategy Board (RGSB),

chaired by Baroness Julie Neuberger, will work with the new distributor

and will set priorities for research, education and treatment.

(7) It is somewhat unclear whether under the regulations whether

they can gamble on matches they are not competing – this however would

have ethical and insider dealing considerations.

Fee and Licence Changes from 1 August 2009

Current Legislation and Policy in the UK

The Gambling Commission carries out a rolling programme of mystery

shopping exercises as part of its ongoing compliance programme. The Personal Functional

Licence application fee rises from [pounds sterling]165 to [pounds

sterling]185 and the Personal Management Licence application fee

increases from [pounds sterling]330 to [pounds sterling]370.

“The Jockey Club is concerned about the vulnerability of horseracing

to criminal behaviour and other undesirable activity as a consequence

of betting, and changes to the criminal law so as to maintain the

public’s confidence in the integrity of the sport. Since 2001, for example, in

the United Kingdom, an extensive consultation process has taken place

that generally supports a more liberal regime. On 1 September

2007 the previous arrangements were replaced by the Gambling Act 2005

which introduced personal management licence (PML) and personal function

licences (PFL). It is also vital that there is effective

policing of these new regulatory frameworks.

Gambling’s relationship with sport has been significant in two

other respects: as a motive for malpractice and corruption and as a

source of finance for sporting activities. The advertising of

individual betting offices and their facilities was originally

prohibited under the 1963 Act but from 1997 the ban has been relaxed to

allow advertisements in material form, for example, in newspapers,

journals and posters. In 1985 it was

still being levied at only 8%. (14)

Sports related gambling has exploited new technologies with

internet betting exchanges having proliferated together with the

opportunities provided by interactive services via digital television

and further new IT based services through websites owned by companies

such as ESPN giving advice and regular updates relating to betting

through for example their ESPN Soccernet Betting Zone website. The police have indicated that there is some corruption

within racing by criminals and that illegal betting, to the detriment

of both government and racing revenues, is being carried out on a

large scale.” (12)

(24) The rolling programme of mystery shopping exercises is one

feature of the Commissions ongoing compliance activity. The

programme looks at various aspects of social responsibility and the

Commission will be retesting betting operators who have previously been

found wanting or are suspected of foul play.

The discount on annual fees for each licence applied to operators

holding multiple licence types will be reduced from 10% to 5% to reflect

the actual cost of delivering compliance and enforcement work.

(21) Section 19 certificates were issued to people working in

specified roles within the bingo and casino industries. Attempts

to fix the results of matches in order to bring off betting coups appear

to have been very rare but in 1964, 10 players received prison sentences

for their part in a so-called betting ring. (23)

Under new gambling laws in the UK the Gambling Commission are to

licence all gambling operators and key workers.

A “Golden decade” lies ahead for British sport according

to Nick Harris of the Independent, a UK broadsheet newspaper. In

some countries around the world, gambling is essentially prohibited. A person who could afford an account with a bookmaker who knew

his financial circumstances well enough to allow him to bet on credit

did not have a problem. From 1 September 1997 the duration of

betting permits and licenses has been extended from one to three years.

A licence may be refused on the grounds that there are already

sufficient licensed betting offices in the locality to meet the demand

for betting. It has three main objectives:

(23) Currently costing on average [pounds sterling] payable

directly to the Criminal Records Bureau.

Multiple Licences

Betting put to good use

Once the licence is appointed under the new gambling laws in the

UK, operators will be subject to ongoing monitoring and inspection.

Saying of his appointment:

“I am delighted to be joining the Levy Board, particularly at a

challenging time for the industry. No person may act as a bookmaker

without the authority of a permit issued by the licensing justices which

currently stand at [pounds sterling]200 per year for General betting -

limited under category A to [pounds sterling]443,526 a year for Casinos

running under the Casino Act 1968 under category E.

(17) www.britishhorseracing.com

The Levy Board is a public body that raises money for the

improvement of horseracing and the advancement of veterinary science and

education. The downside is that if an exclusive

commission is paid to sport governing bodies when they recommend that

gamblers deal with ‘official’ or ‘approved’ betting exchanges a

conflict of interest is created where a sports contest integrity is

sacrificed in order to maximise sports related gambling revenues.

As with the regulation of gambling generally, there are a number of

differing regulatory regimes ranging from prohibition, on the one

hand, through to very liberal licensing. The early indication is that Internet betting exchanges

are creating opportunities for lucrative ‘remote gambling’ while

resulting in gambling anonymity that may ultimately endanger the

integrity of sports competition. Since then gambling on sport has been increasingly raided by

governments to provide income for the State and has also played a

crucial role in the financing of the major sports of football and horse

racing. With two

very distinct issues in discussion in this paper we will be looking at

the laws governing the gambling and betting in the UK combined with a

number of social policy issues detailing measures to regulate betting

for the benefit of society. Obviously this ruled out many of the working

class men and women.

The anti-gamblers’ first legislative success was an Act of

1853 to suppress betting houses and betting shops, which had been

springing up in places, often within public houses. Unlike a lottery, a

bet may involve skill or judgement. In a third grouping of

countries a liberal regulatory framework exists. The essential test

applied by the licensing justices in considering an application is

whether or not the applicant is a fit and proper person. A House of Lords Select Committee first examined the matter in 1901-02. Recently in the United Kingdom, as a result of horseracing

betting exchange abuses, there has been a succession of inquiries by

the Jockey Club into suspicious betting practices around horse races.

Similarly, it has been reported that the Association of Tennis

Professionals (‘ATP’) has discovered that bets of up to [pounds

sterling]80,000 were being placed on individual matches and that

there had been irregular betting patters around matches involving

players not ranked in the top 100. The stated objective is to have ‘effective

regulation [that will] see Britain become a world leader in the

field of on-line gambling.’

In contrast, the United States has passed federal anti-gambling

legislation. During modern times, sports betting

is the most popular form of gambling worldwide, with Internet-related

gambling generating over $3billion in annual reserves in 2002.

Gambling and sports creates an ‘unholy alliance.’ Gambling has

enhanced sport’s popularity, particularly on television whereby

bettors are more interested in the point spread, not the outcome of

a contest. The pool for one week in 1929-30 reached [pounds

sterling]19,000. The operators

concerned have already taken significant action to address the situation

including working with the Association of British Bookmakers (ABB) to

produce an action plan and supplementary code of practice on age

verification. It does this through collecting a statutory levy from


In addition to the introduction of revised arrangements for

operators who provide facilities for a remote casino, remote bingo and

remote betting on virtual events, there are additional changes to fee

bandings and for calculating working days for on-course greyhound

bookmakers. It produces an impression that life is governed by chance

and not by laws’.

The Government set up a Gambling Review Body in 1999 under the

chairmanship of Sir Alan Budd (11) looking at a wide range of the

legislation on gambling in Britain with its report submitted in June

2001. Pedestrianism (4)

probably began in the 17th Century.

By 1929 the police were very critical of both the law and their

role in enforcing it and said as much to the Royal Commission which at

the time was examining the police services. There is protection for children and vulnerable people

A Brief History of Sports Betting in the UK

Online Gambling

The new fees include revised arrangements for calculating working

days for General betting (limited) licence holders. Betting exchanges have created a fundamental change in

gambling because now anyone with a credit card can make money from

either a horse, a player, or a team offering odds on the website

and then keeping the stakes when people fail to beat the odds.

However, there is a realistic fear that people who have privileged

or ‘insider’ information – knowing for certain that a horse, a

player or a team is going to lose – are offering odds on betting

exchanges then maximising their revenues on unsuspecting gambling


In the United Kingdom, the market leader is Betfair.com. Paper presented at the Ninth Asser Annual International Sports

Law Lecture concerning “Sports betting policy in a European legal

perspective: freedom of services versus general interest”, The

Hague, The Netherlands, 16 September 2009.

So far as corporate clients are concerned, the test will be applied

to the directors and other persons holding positions of authority or

influence over it. The mystery shopping

exercises use under age volunteers (with parental consent) as permitted

under Section 64 of the Gambling Act 2005 to assess whether effective

controls are in place to prevent under age gambling.

3. Striking a balance

between sports competition and Internet gambling is a tricky

position. The protection of

vulnerable people remains my number one priority and I will not be

giving the industry a second chance to put this right.”

(18) www.natlotcomm.gov.uk

The fee categories for this type of licence will be based on annual

gross gambling yield.

With this in mind there have been a number of changes made to

legislation relating to gambling recently.

(1) Bradley v The Jockey Club (2004) EWHC 2164.

Betting on sport is growing in popularity, with many new forms such

as spread betting. Betfair makes its money by charging a commission to those

who win their bets.

Horseracing is a major attraction for Internet betting exchange

gambling. For clarity the previous remote

licence type, General betting standard, is now known as General betting

standard (real events).

The regulatory framework of the British betting industry has been

liberalised during the first half of the 1990′s. This licence type is known as General

betting standard (virtual events only). Many of the larger online bookmakers

are proud to boast they host their servers in countries such as the UK

or Australia, and are therefore more heavily regulated by the stricter

laws and regulations of these countries.

2 The Commission is responsible for licensing and regulating

gambling in Great Britain other than the National Lottery and spread

betting, which are the responsibility of the National Lottery Commission

and the Financial Services Authority (FSA) respectively. The treatment of football

was different to the treatment of horse racing. It covers on

line gambling, betting shops and AGCs and works closely with LACORS and

individual local authorities to ensure compliance. (6) By the mid-1930′s the firm was sponsoring

programmes on Radio Luxembourg which broadcast the results of matches on

Saturdays and Sundays. (15)

(16) www.fsa.gov.uk.

Personal licences increases are to reflect increased costs, in

particular those relating to processing Criminal Records Bureau (CRB)

checks. Betting by the poor led to debt which in turn led to crime. The Commission’s Director of

Regulation, Nick Tofiluk said in a press release in August:

Following the joint consultation by the Gambling Commission (the

Commission) and the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) on

proposals for Commission fees, Ministers have agreed changes to the

application, annual and variation fees payable in a number of licence

types and categories. (3)

(22) August deadline only three weeks away for section 19

certificate holders; Press release, 11 August 2009, The Gambling


The match fixing scandal(s) in cricket shows that there is a need

for an effective regulatory framework concerning gambling and sport. In Britain, over the

last few years an increasingly liberal approach has been adopted.

However as discussed and with new laws and regulations in place law and

policy in betting is once again under the spotlight.

As part of the new gambling laws in the UK the Gambling Com -

mission will have a wider remit that the Gaming Board, which will extend

to betting and online gambling. (2)

* Sports Management Department, Birkbeck College, London, United

Kingdom. The planned fee increases are introduced by

statutory instrument which was laid on 9 July 2009 and, following

Parliamentary process, are intended to come into force on 1 August 2009.

Employees in the bingo and casino industry who still hold

certificates of approval, issued under section 19 of the Gambling Act

1968 known as section 19 certificates must have applied for their new

personal licence before the end of August 2009 in order to guarantee

their application is determined by the end of the year. It

is prohibited in some areas and regulated in others through strong and

enforceable government legislation. A bookmaker

operating from a betting office requires a licence for the premises

issued by the licensing justices. (8)

There are several regulators based in the UK that handle all issues

relating to online gambling and their restrictions. By 1850 the State was being pressurised into

doing it. It will continue to collect

donations from gambling licence holders as well as from industries that

profit from gambling.

Gambling has always been a part of the modern sporting world,

although the public response to it has varied from one period to

another. (13)

(10) See Hunter, W, Football Fortunes: Results, Forecasting,

Gambling and Computing (1996), Harpenden: Oldcastle; ‘A good

bet’, Fair Game, Channel 4, 22 May 1995.

Betting operators who in addition to betting on real events such as

sports events, offer virtual racing through means of remote

communication will now require both a General betting standard (virtual

events) and a General betting standard (real events) licence.

Probably the most important change affecting bookmakers in regards

to the new gambling laws in the UK is the establishment of a new single

regulatory authority, the Gambling Commission whose remit is:

(3) Gardiner, S., James, M., O’Leary, J. I look forward

to working with both racing and bookmakers and am hopeful that we can

work together to ensure that the Levy system continues to benefit all

those with an interest in racing.” (25)

The ultimate aim of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport and

the Gambling Commission is to keep gambling fair and safe for all.

An operator who stands at a meeting televised and shown at a

betting premises run by a Commission operating licence holder which

starts after 8am and ends after 7pm at, for example, a BAGS meeting,

need not count that meeting towards the overall total number of days in

determining the appropriate banding for a General betting (limited)


The discount on annual fees for each licence applied to operators

holding multiple licence types will be reduced from 10% to 5% to reflect

the actual cost of delivering compliance and enforcement work.

A new remote licence type will be available for operators who

provide facilities for remote betting on the outcome of a virtual game,

race or other event or process. (24)

Multiple Licences

It is now a legal requirement that all online gambling sites

dealing with real money gaming must be regulated by the government of

where the games are hosted – for example; many online bookmakers operate

out of countries such as Gibraltar due to laxer tax laws, as well as

lower taxes and are therefore under the jurisdiction of the Gibraltan

authorities for remote gambling. It was aimed at all off-course

betting. Betting

added another dimension of excitement to the uncertainty of sport itself

and it was excitement, which the leisured rural classes were especially

seeking, particularly in a countryside whose range of more conventional

pursuits soon began to pall in the eyes of the young, married, leisured


The changes to personal licence fees set out in consultation

proposals, will take effect on 11 August 2009. The tax on pools betting came much

earlier and was much higher at 42% in 1985. This was also facilitated by the Royal Commission

of 1949-51 having relatively sophisticated economic and statistical

apparatus which enabled it to show that personal expenditure on gambling

was only about 1% of total personal expenditure, that gambling was then

absorbing only about 0.5% of the total resources of the country and that

it was by then rare for it to be a cause of poverty in individual


(19) www.ofcom.gov.uk

The annual fee for general betting standard licence holders in

categories A-C who do not provide gaming machines on their licensed

betting premises will be held at 2008 levels. Any bingo or

casino worker still operating under the permissions granted prior to

September 2007 under a section 19 certificate will put their employment

status at risk if they do not get their application to the Commission


“I am confident that the new structure will be successful. As well as this,

there are several charities and Government run schemes that are

available to help gamblers that may have an issue with gambling, or more

importantly relating to laws of gambling, suspect foul play in a UK

based online bookmakers. This is to recognise

the anomalous market conditions faced by operators standing at

Bookmakers’ Afternoon Greyhound Service (BAGS) greyhound meetings

staged for broadcast to the off-course betting industry, rather than to

satisfy local market demand.

Gambling or betting and sport have almost been inseparable and

gambling has been subject to considerable regulation by the State.

Gambling has close links with the general commercialisation of sport and

with corrupt practices in sport which can be illustrated by such affairs

as the Hansie Cronje Affair, 2020 cricket issues surrounding Alan

Stamford and other cases such as Bradley (1) in horse racing. Any existing

section 19 certificates will cease to have legal effect on 31 December


(6) The average price of a 3 bedroom detached house in East Sussex with 2 acres of land in 1976.

Since the dawn of sport, gambling has been in its constant champion.

Ancient drawings on primitive cave walls find that gambling has

existed for thousands of years. Existing section 19 certificate holders were given two

years to make their personal licence applications to the Commission.

Football was a very attractive proposition both to the bookmakers

and punters, before 1900 some newspapers had offered prizes for

forecasting the correct scores as well as the results of a small number

of matches and early in the 20th century a system of betting on football

coupons at fixed odds had developed in the north of England.

Changes to Fees

(5) A Littlewoods bookmaker would collect your pools each week

going from door to door.

by Genevieve Gordon *

(9) ‘Bookies bet on football bonanza’ The Observer, 7

January 1996, p 6.

(11) Gambling Review Report (2001),

As a continuing programme the Commission will be conducting mystery

shopping exercises at a number of licensed betting operator’s

premises in the future. Further, in April

2003, the Department for Culture, Media and Sport produced a

position paper, ‘The Future Regulation of Remote Gambling’ (see

www.dcms.gov.uk). This

website claims to be ‘the world’s largest online betting company’

with an estimated turnover of [pounds sterling]50 million per week.

Betfair simply serves as a broker, matching people who want to bet

with people prepared to offer odds and bringing them together on its

website. In the United States, there are many

instances of specific sports gambling legislation to govern the

behaviour of people within and outside sports. (7) Football has occasionally been

shaken by allegations that matches have been thrown, usually in the

context of championship games, promotion or regulation issues. It

of course flourishes as an ‘illegal underground activity’. In 1906 came the


The operator licence application fees from 1st August 2009 have

been reduced by 5% to reflect increased efficiency and two new types of

licence have been introduced.

2. The survey of nearly 9,000 children aged between 12 and 15 in

England and Wales was conducted by Ipsos MORI and the Centre for the

Study of Gambling at the University of Salford. As

The Times put it in the 1890′s, it ‘eats the heart out of

honest labour

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