Comet to brush Earth, closer than any in centuries

Planet X incoming! Here is the latest news as it relates to Planet X and the space debris

An emerald-green comet will brush the Earth Monday, followed one day later by a kissing cousin that will swerve closer to the planet than any other comet in nearly 250 years. The first and bigger of the two comets will be visible Monday to the naked eye in the southern hemisphere, as long as city lights are far away.

Stargazers in the United States will probably need only binoculars to see the bigger comet in late March. Scientists, however, are bringing out the big guns. The Hubble Space Telescope, the powerful ground-based Gemini telescopes and others will be trained on the celestial visitors, which will provide an extraordinary close-up of objects usually glimpsed only at a distance.
“This is one for the record books,” says Michael Kelley of the University of Maryland, who’s never heard of two comets approaching close to Earth a day apart. “It’s a fantastic opportunity for professionals to learn more about comets, and if you have a chance to try to find them … it’s a fantastic chance to see part of history as it happens.” READ MORE

Historic double comet flyby coming Monday and Tuesday: Here's what you need to know

Two comets are headed for a historic flyby of Earth this week, and you don't want to miss them.
The bigger of the two bodies, known as 252P/LINEAR, is about 750 feet in size and surrounded by an emerald green cloud of gas. It is expected to make its closest approach to our planet on March 21 at 5:14 a.m. PDT.
At that time, it will come within 3.3 million miles of Earth, or about 14 times farther from our planet than the moon on March 21.
The next day, at 7:30 a.m. PDT, a second, smaller comet known as P/2016 BA14 will come even closer --flying within 2.2 million miles of our planet or 9.2 times farther from the Earth than the moon.

That will make it the closest comet to fly past Earth since 1770, according to Sky & Telescope, and the second closest comet to zip past Earth in recorded history.

Rosetta spots two types of water ice on the surface of comet 67P

"There are many more asteroids in near-Earth space than comets, which are significantly more rare," said Michael Kelley, an astronomer at the University of Maryland. "When a comet does come this close to Earth it is something to get excited about, and take advantage of to learn whatever we can."
It is possible that comet 252P/LINEAR will be visible to the naked eye eventually. It is expected to grow brighter as it flies toward the sun and more gases sublimate out of its nucleus. However, it will be too far south in the sky to be visible in the northern hemisphere at the time of closest approach.

Astronaut Scott Kelly retires from NASA, but is he done with space for good?

P/2016 BA14 appears to be quite small and may never grow bright enough to be easily spotted without a telescope, experts said.
If you want to see live video of the comets as they zip past Earth online, the astronomy website The Virtual Telescope is planning two live broadcasts on March 21 and 22.
The bigger comet, 252P/LINEAR, was discovered in April 2000, but the smaller comet was only spotted two months ago in late January. Astronomers using the Pan-STARRS telescope in Hawaii originally had it pegged as an asteroid rather than a comet because they could not yet see a tail.
Russian astronomer Denis Denisenko of Moscow State University noticed that little P/2016 BA14 had a remarkably similar orbit to 252P/LINEAR and wondered whether the two bodies might be related. He shared this observation on the Yahoo Comets mailing list where international professional and amateur comet-watchers trade information.
Kelley and his colleague at the University of Maryland, Matthew Knight, saw Denisenko's post and were intrigued.
March 20, 11:18 p.m.: A previous version of this story incorrectly identified University of Maryland astronomer Matthew Knight as Michael Knight.
"What are the chances of such an unusual comet and a random asteroid having a similar orbit and Earth close approach?" Kelley wrote on his blog in February. "Probably very small! A lot of suspicion was starting to be cast on this so-called asteroid."
That same month, Kelley and Knight were able to take images of P/2015 BA14 using a 4.3-meter telescope in Arizona. Both observations showed that the small "asteroid" did indeed have a tail. It was a comet after all.
"It was a really exciting moment," Kelley told The Times. "I study comets all the time, but I never get the chance to discover them. This was the closest I've come."
Now the astronomy community is trying to determine the relationship between the two bodies. It is extremely improbable that two totally independent comets would fly so close to Earth at almost the same time, Kelley said. Although their orbits are not identical, they are close enough to suggest that they may be two pieces of the same comet that broke apart in the recent past.
To find out, astronomers around the world plan to closely observe the two comets with a variety of instruments, including the Hubble Space Telescope and the Goldstone Deep Space network, to see how similar their orbits are and whether their gas clouds have the same spectral fingerprint.
Kelley said a comet might fracture in two for a a number of reasons. It is possible that the larger body began to rotate too fast and needed to shed mass to stay together. It might be that energy from the sun causes the ices in the nucleus to warm up so rapidly in a particular area that pressure builds up and causes an explosion. Or, it could be that the comet got too close to a planet and the planet's gravity caused it tear apart.
The researchers hope to learn more after the two comets, or possibly two pieces of a single comet, speed by this week.
No matter what they learn, it should be interesting.

US and Russia preparing for Planet X / Nibiru arrival and aftermath

Russia is just finishing 5,000 shelters in Moscow. They’re much more open (in this regard anyway) on this topic than other governments.

I personally estimate the US probably has over 150 Deep Underground Military Bases. A huge military underground city exists underneath the Denver Airport. Russia has some that can accommodate over 100,000 people (at the base of mountains). These are entire underground cities that have been under construction since the 1980s.

The far greater electromagnetic fields of Planet X will cause great earthquakes (greater than the highest level of 9.5 known to date), volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and a shift of the physical poles.

Now it is public knowledge that government agencies are on a need-to-know classification (intra-agency), and that they never publish information in advance that could cause an economic or other disruption. Enough said.

However, if you do any research at all you will run into different levels of disinformation. Some of this is from uneducated members of the public and some of it is very likely on purpose. You have to use your head when you do research.

Until the discovery of Planet X, astronomers had regarded the writings of the ancient Sumerians about this object as legend. When Planet X was discovered in 1983, they suddenly learned that the Sumerians were not the primitive people they have been made out to be by “intellectuals” of today.


When Pioneer 10 was sent out to study Planet X, it encountered a mysterious force – dubbed the Pioneer anomaly by baffled NASA scientists. It was gently pushed against (by the force of the magnetosphere of Planet X) and moved in the opposite direction back toward the sun. Its forward momentum was decelerated.

Pioneer was traveling toward the right of Nibiru at this point. This tells us two things: (1) that Nibiru’s outer magnetic force is so strong it can affect objects 46.8 AU from Nibiru (Pioneer’s approximate distance at the time; (2) that Nibiru’s magnetism rotates in a clockwise fashion because that is the only way it could push Pioneer back when the deep space probe was flying to the right of it. If it rotated anticlockwise and the Pioneer 10 was traveling in the same direction, it would push the probe slightly forward and to the right of its trajectory. The effect would have been the opposite as the probe would have been seen to accelerate, not decelerate, in its drift.


The real reason for the Hubble Space Telescope was NOT to explore the solar system and the Universe, as some claim from time to time. The real reason for spending billions of dollars to construct the telescope, place it in orbit and then immediately replace parts on it was for the purpose of viewing inbound Planet X. A June 6, 2011 interview with a Hubble Insider now published at YouTube on the video below states this fact as to the Hubble’s purpose. He watched it through the Hubble Telescope and stated that “this thing looked like it was across the street and the Hubble got cut off and they encrypted it and that was the end of any transmissions we had to watch.”


Nibiru (aka Planet X and referred to by the Vatican as Wormwood) has a mass that is 3-5 times the mass of Jupiter. Its composition is cesium, iron oxide, iron, oxygen and ozone, according to the same video by the Hubble Insider, who also stated it has seven planets (moons) orbiting it and innumerable asteroids. Its existence is known by all of the major governments of the world. They are prepared – are you?

The object is huge and until recently it is a red dwarf star visible only in the infrared spectrum. The alleged agent claims that the government is monitoring the system and that in 2008 it could be seen in high detail with infrared telescopes.

I say observed through the infrared spectrum until recently, so take a look at the video below from North Carolina. Its approach is so close it can be seen clearly from the 11:00 position of the sun! About one minute into the video, just tilt your screen upward for a better view. This independent video is just one more indication using deductive logic that its close approach is occurring now.

Wormwood: Forerunner of Nibiru, Harbinger of the Apocalypse

Cosmic Convergence Research Group
Carlos Muñoz Ferrada Confirms Planet X; Orbit, Speed And Size Reveal A Comet-Planet — PART I

Comet-Planet Identified, Orbital Trajectory Verified by Renowned Astronomer — PART II

* * *
The SEVENTH SEAL: A Biblical Prophecy That Cannot Be Averted

“When the 7th Seal is opened, Wormwood will make itself known and the Apocalypse will begin in earnest.”

We live in a time when common sense has become quite rare. Likewise, the voice of reason has fled humankind. For these reasons the following essay will be quite difficult for many to understand or believe or imbibe.

If you were running the world during these tumultuous times, and you knew that events were on the horizon which would forever alter the entire planetary civilization, would you use the global mainstream media to tell everyone?
If those earth-shattering events were as unstoppable as they were fateful, would you disseminate this information?
If your answer is “Yes”, what will the 7 billion plus people who reside on Planet Earth do the next day? That is, after you tell them that their world is about to come to an end.
Will they still go to work?
Will they continue to support the Consumer Society?
Will many of them even want to get out of bed again after they hear what is coming?
Herein lies the challenge that is faced by the World Shadow Government (WSG).
Bear in mind that they know exactly what is around the corner. Their strategically-located observatories and high-powered telescopes give them access to scientific data and astronomical phenomena which is so compelling they feel they have no alternative but to:
• distract us
• deceive us
• divert our attention

Remember, there is one thing — more than anything else — which the WSG fears.

That is uncontrolled chaos.
They know—> that real mayhem in the streets will not treat them well.
Therefore, spontaneous social pandemonium is their greatest worry.
Unpredictable political paroxysms strike fear into their hearts.
Uncontrollable financial volatility will only serve to shatter their control matrix.

With this understanding one can better comprehend the many unreasonable and irrational, mindless and foolish, crazy and insane actions taken by the World Shadow Government. Obviously they know that their time is up. Accordingly, they have less and less control – by the day – over how things will play out.
Yes, they may have a Plan A, a Plan B, and a Plan C. However, there are many emerging eventualities over which they have far less influence than what they are used to. Their bunkers buried deep underground may not be in the protected areas they once thought. Nor are their off-planet rendezvous sites as safe from solar system calamities as they once believed. Of course their experiments with time travel and interstellar travel, wormholes and parallel universes,  blank slate technology and invisibility cloaking have already proved disastrous.
Before we continue to address the unfoldment of their master plan, and how it is thwarted at every turn, exactly what is it that the WSG is so concerned about?  Does something lurk in the far reaches of the Solar System which has their undivided attention?  You be the judge!
The following video may be one of the most revealing you will ever watch.
It also informs as to why there are so many desperate moves being made at the very top; the pervasive institutional madness somehow becomes fathomable.

*************** Hercolubus is coming. — Carlos Muñoz Ferrada ***************
We are not suggesting that all of the scientific predictions of Carlos Muñoz Ferrada* are entirely accurate. Prophecies of this nature are rarely perfect. However, what this highly intuitive and gifted astronomer and seismologist has told us cannot be ignored.
*Carlos Muñoz Ferrada, predicted with extraordinary accuracy numerous earthquakes in South America during the last century. He did this by making direct correlations between specific astronomical phenomena and various catastrophic earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. His most significant prediction regards the “future arrival of a greatComet-Planet”.
For those who did not watch the preceding video, Ferrada calls it a Comet-Planet because it has the size of a planet, and the speed and elliptical orbit of a comet.
Whether you believe or not what this video portrays is not essential. What matters is that there have been numerous prognostications of this nature over millennia which simply can no longer be ignored in the face of such pervasive and compelling evidence.
What kind of evidence? Before we go there, it’s important to point out that Latin America has produced other gifted visionaries just like Carlos Muñoz Ferrada. Here are three of those individuals who have independently referred to the future happenings delineated by Carlos Ferrada.
(1) V.M. Rabolu (1926 – 2000) was born in Tolima, Colombia.

“In 1998 he wrote “Hercolubus or Red Planet”. Based on his direct and conscious experience, V.M. Rabolu describes the terrible events that will happen on our planet in the short term and explains the path that the human being can follow in order to achieve a deep transformation.”
“Hercolubus, a planet so called by the sages of antiquity, is approaching our Solar System and is the cause of great concern for those who know about such cosmic phenomena. In our former encounter, Hercolubus put an end to the Atlantean civilization. These facts are duly related through all the “Universal Floods” of different religions and cultures.”
“The consequence of the very close proximity of Hercolubus will be upheaval in all corners of our planet.”
— “Hercolubus or Red planet” by V. M. Rabolu; Diana’s Pub (October 1, 2002)
(2) Benjamín Solari Parravicini (1898–1974), was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina on August 8

“Benjamin Solari Parravicini, the great Argentinean prophet, who was nicknamed “the South American Nostradamus”, wrote some decades ago: “The hour of hours will arrive and in its darkness the crash of the big planet will be received. The Earth will be reversed. Everything will fall”.
— www.thefinalprophecy.info
(3) Samael Aun Weor (March 6, 1917 – December 24, 1977) was born as Victor Manuel Gómez Rodriguez in Bogotá, Colombia

“Samael Aun Weor, the great Gnostic master who gave numerous lectures in Mexico during the 70s. He talked about Hercolubus and explained that, in the times of the end, it would approach the Earth. Due to its great electromagnetic power, he said it would destabilize the Earth’s crust causing huge earthquakes, tidal waves, volcanic eruptions and natural disasters. Hercolubus would have approached our solar system in former occasions to unleash cataclysms that wiped out the Lemurian and Atlantean civilizations. Now, he said, it would come again to end our civilization and allow a new era to begin.”
— The Final Prophecy by The Alcione Association

The Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope is part of the Mount Graham International Observatory situated on Mount Graham in southeast Arizona, and is operated by the Vatican Observatory, one of the oldest astronomical research institutions in the world.” (Per Wikipedia)
Why else do you think the Vatican owns an observatory outside of Safford, Arizona?
Not only does the Vatican operate the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) at Mount Graham International Observatory (MGIO) located in southeast Arizona’s Pinaleno Mountains, they share the same facility with the The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory.
“The Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, aka the VATT, is a 1.8 meter Gregorian telescope observing in the optical and infrared.”  Why infrared?  Because Planet X is often referred to as a brown dwarf which has cooled down so much that it can only be detected in this range of light frequency.

“Construction of MGIO began in 1989. MGIO currently operates and maintains facilities for three scientific organizations. The first two telescopes, the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope and the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope began operations in 1993. The Large Binocular Telescope, one of the world’s largest and most powerful telescopes, began operations using mirrors independently in 2004, with joint operations between the two mirrors beginning in 2008.”
(Per Wikipedia – Mount Graham International Observatory)
The Vatican Secret Archives has probably more volumes of original documents in the form of scriptural treatises, as well as historical records produced by the ancients, than any other library on Earth.  The Roman Catholic Church is further informed about the future of humanity from the numerous Marian apparitions which have occurred around the world over the past two hundred years. It is a well known fact in certain circles (e.g. Curia and Magisterium) that many of the prophecies, which were given to mostly children, have never been released by the Church hierarchy because of the dire content.

Planet X - Nibiru - Facts (1841-2012) & Newspaper Scans

Solar Eclipse Reveals Massive Planetary Body Heading Towards Earth

Images captured immediately before and during the umbra phase of the total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016 reveals a series ofl planetary objects to the upper right of photos. The images were captured while on an Alaska Airlines flight 870 from Anchorage to Honolulu. The images suggest the presence of a planetary body and moon complex (Nibiru-Planet X) in proximity to the sun.
The first image was captured 2 minutes prior to totality and the remaining images were captured during the totality phase. Skytv revealed an amazing capture of a second sun in retrograde orbit around our Sun. The credible TV image was captured on March 1, 2016 and shows a massive planetary entity behind the clouds, therefore disproving the lens flare theory, and suggesting a genuine celestial presence.

by J.M. McCanney

Planet-X, Comets & Earth Changes
by James M. McCanney
Minneapolis, MN: jmccanneyscience.com press, 2007

(first published in 2002)
182 pp.

A new model of the Universe

A scientific revolution in the theories of the nature of comets, solar system formation and astronomical phenomena in general is long overdue.

For example, the impossibilities and contradictions inherent in the "dirty snowball comet model" and the "nebular collapse" theory of the origin of the solar system are legion. The theories fall short of explaining observed phenomena, but you'll never hear the scientists promoting them admit as much.

Unfortunately, it seems that in all their mental excavations, the mass-produced scientists of our time have dug themselves into a trench of dreary proportions, carried along by the inertial stream of their cherished professors' naïve opinions. In fact, they can't even tell how deep they are in it, or that their theories are as woefully outdated as the mastodon fossils of which they catch passing glimpses.

And thanks to James McCanney's work over the last thirty-odd years, they find themselves plunged, in the words of Mullah Nasr Eddin,

"into the deepest galoshes that have ever been worn on sweaty feet."

James McCanney is something of a maverick in the scientific community.

Having taught physics and mathematics at Cornell University, he was ousted because of pressure put on University authorities by professors in the astronomy department who didn't like what he was publishing. In that sense, academia is a tad like life in the Mob: "You can't say these things. If you do, we'll ruin you."

But while McCanney may have suffered the fate of any scientist who attempts to go against the grain, his theories continue to hold up, predicting newly observed phenomena without having to resort to the "creeping crud" of widely accepted, bogus theories (McCanney's term for the shameless "revision" of old theories to account for unexpected observations).

McCanney's first book in a series presenting his ideas, Planet-X, Comets & Earth Changes: A Scientific Treatise on the Effects of a New Large Planet or Comet Arriving in Our Solar System and Expected Earth Weather and Earth Changes, introduces his theoretical work on these topics. It's divided into thirteen short chapters describing the scientific concepts in layman's terms, followed by reprints of his original scientific papers published in the early 1980s.

The net result is three-fold:

first he takes apart the current theories, evangelized for decades by inept institutions such as NASA and the NOAA. Then he presents his own theories, accounting for all those pesky "anomalies" ignored or explained away by mainstream scientists.

Besides accounting for these anomalies, as he explains in Part II of his "3-Part Comet Paper", included in Appendix II:

Any alternate theory concerning comet behavior and the origin of the solar system (OSS) must re-explain many observed phenomena in a self-consistent context.

These include the origin of comet nuclei and the reason for the observed "families" of comets arriving from many specific directions in space, comet wandering, sunward spikes, sunward fan tails, occasional separation of the tail from the nucleus, comet splitting, the cause of Type I, II, and III tails, the spiraling of tail material, the stratification in some tails, multiple tails, the shrinking of the coma as the comet approaches the Sun, and the maintenance of meteoroid streams.

In relating the above to the formation of planets, moons and asteroids, the theory must also explain the internal heat and radioactivity of the planets, the orientation of the rotational axes of the planets, the spacing of planetary and lunar orbits, the asteroid belt, the source of planetary atmospheres, the size distribution of celestial bodies, the cause of retrograde orbits of selected moons, and last, but not least, the magnetic fields of the planets.

This must all be done in a context consistent with data (although not necessarily with uniformitarian theory) in other fields such as geology, biology, archaeology, anthropology, etc."

("3-Part Comet Paper" Part II, p. 61)

Following that, he describes what it all means for us living on planet Earth, what has happened in the past and will happen again - effects of which most scientists are either unaware or unable to speak due to signed non-disclosure agreements.

But first, what exactly can't the current theories explain? Surely, there can't be any holes in the "wisdom" parroted about as if it were holy dogma these days, right?

To avoid any excess sarcasm (there's enough of that already, and more to come!), I'll let you guess my answer to that one. I'll just say that these "anomalies" have all either been ignored or the current theories simply modified with "correcting factors" to account for the unexpected data (thus creating even more inconsistencies).

The nebular theory of OSS, for example, has mighty difficulty (without fudging numbers or creating new physical phenomena) explaining the formation of large proto-planets let alone small comet nuclei in terms of gravitational collapse of gas clouds, Saturn's large energy output, Venus' greater energy output than input from the Sun, the moon Titan's high temperature compared to the little sunlight it receives, the maintenance of Pluto's atmosphere, electrical current flow between Jupiter and its moon Io, and various other electrical phenomena observed in space, to name just a handful.

The "dirty snowball comet model" (DSCM), in turn, can't quite wrap itself around the continual renewal of comet coma, their curvature and well defined edges, "sunward spikes" with intense radio signals coming off the nucleus, tail spiraling, etc.

As McCanney points out above, any good theory must account for all of those, and more. So what does he offer instead? The "comet capture theory of OSS" and the "plasma discharge comet model" (PDCM), according to which our solar system, and space in general, is not electrically neutral.

Rather, we live in an electric universe.

An illustration of the current "nebular collapse" theory

of solar system formation taught to all students of space science.

Let's start big, like galaxy big.

According to the received wisdom, our solar system formed more or less at one time, four-point-something billion years ago (give or take a day or two). You can read about it on Wikipedia. Basically, in the beginning was the Great Nebular Cloud, which was pretty bored and lonely being a just cloud and so collapsed and flattened into a Really Big Disc, out of which several varied planets and moons gradually coalesced.

If it sounds like a myth, it's because it most likely is. According to McCanney's theory (described in the paper in Appendix I), the picture is pretty different, being both logical and accounting for those aforementioned "anomalies", including the "missing mass" problem, the spiral shape and symmetry of galactic arms, and the surplus of twin star systems observed in our galaxy.

In this model, stars and planets, as well as smaller comet nuclei, are all formed at the same time from cosmic dust continually emanating from and returning back into the galactic center. Basically, the cosmic dust collapses inward toward the nucleus, and condensed material is ejected outward in a "shotgun effect". (Because all these objects are formed in the same way, this means that stars may actually have solid cores, the source of heavy isotopes ejected in supernovae.)

Ejected bodies will naturally stabilize into dual orbiting systems, explaining the observation that over 80% of star systems are actually twin-star systems, the remainder probably also being twinned, although with more introverted companions of the unlit variety (e.g., brown dwarfs or gas giants).

(Incidentally, McCanney believes Jupiter is the Sun's unlit twin, as they alone share the same spin axis among solar system bodies, but we here at SOTT favor the brown dwarf theory, for which Walter Cruttenden gives some evidence in his book Lost Star of Myth and Time.)

As these two bodies stabilize in their orbit of one another, they eject smaller bodies to go out into the world and find their own solar system.

So where do comets come from? Aside from being rudely deflected from the sphere of our stellar young lovers, another source of comets is the material ejected from stellar novae, the small bits flying away at great speeds with the biggest bits staying behind. (This may explain the "families" of comets that appear to come from the same source in space.)

These ejected bodies from the galactic center and supernovae will later be captured into the orbit of one or another of the bodies of an already-paired star system, in the manner in which comets are "captured" into solar systems by large planets like Jupiter, falling into stable orbits over time and accreting mass in the methods described below.

So while stellar pairs may enforce their privacy at first, they can't forestall the inevitability of certain "cosmic accidents".

But before we continue our story of cosmic "Married with Children", we need a few more concepts with which to work, namely, from the plasma discharge model.

McCanney writes:

It has always been assumed that the solar wind contains equal currents of electrons and protons to maintain an electrically neutral solar system. But there is no reason for assuming this is so. It would be impossible to detect the overall current leaving the Sun at any given moment.

The few points at which the solar wind has been monitored can in no way be extrapolated to say that there are equal currents of protons and electrons in the solar wind as has been done by theorists. External characteristics, e.g., comet phenomena and electrical phenomena in Saturn's rings, indicate that there must be an excess current of protons.

In solar prominences are seen composite streamers of similarly charged particles moving in the local magnetic field, so there can be no doubt that the Sun has the ability to selectively eject composite streamers of similarly charged particles.

("3-Part Comet Paper" Part I, p. 25)

Comet Arend-Roland's sunward spike - a high energy electron beam

connecting the discharging comet and the Sun.

Basically, electrons' movement is slightly retarded in the Sun's corona, with solar flares hurling out an excess number of protons.

The excess protons in the solar wind creates a separation of charge throughout the entire solar system - a giant capacitor with a positively charged, doughnut-shaped nebular cloud of dust and gases stretching to the far reaches of the solar system, and the negatively charged the surface of the Sun.

An electrical potential exists between these two poles and any object moving through plasma regions of varying charge density will become charged, depending on its size and relative velocity. When new bodies (e.g., comets) enter this plasma region from outer space, they ignite and begin to discharge the solar capacitor.

The comet nucleus acquires a negative charge, with electrons flowing towards it in the form of a sunward spike. The excess protons and other positively charged ions (including light elements up to sulfur) making up the nebular cloud and zodiacal disc (which contains the heavy elements) flow into and form the comet tail. So the comet tail has nothing to do with water vapor streaming from a melting "snowball", although that's not to say that water can't be a component of a comet tail - quite the contrary.

The Sun is an interesting thing (seriously!).

Compare it with a gas giant like Saturn. Both are surrounded by a plane of stratified, ring-like structures: the familiar rings of Saturn and the Sun's zodiacal disc (the dusty material spanning the plane of the ecliptic) with rings at certain distances, e.g., between Mars and Jupiter. In fact, both Saturn and Jupiter exhibit certain star-like properties and electrical phenomena, leading McCanney to some interesting hypotheses.

Besides rings and satellites, they display interplanetary electrical discharges (e.g., between Jupiter and Io), energetic particles, differential rotation (the equator of the Sun rotates faster than the poles), high temperatures, exothermic radiation, and highly energetic atmospheric lightning.

According to McCanney, this lightning is actually what triggers fusion reactions (the burning of hydrogen and helium) on the Sun's surface, i.e., not in its core. Like the gas giants, the Sun should have a solid core, where radioactive decay takes place.

This brings us back to family matters and unplanned parenthood. If planets can become stars, can comets become moons or planets, and if so, how? Let's follow a comet as it journeys into the solar system and see what happens based on McCanney's comet capture theory. As a small comet enters the solar system, it will be seen to light up, discharging a relatively small and localized region of the capacitor.

Several types of tail may be observed, in addition to the brightly lit coma. These tail shapes vary according to different charge-ratio values (in relation to the Sun) and the stratification of dust and gases in the tail itself. Sudden neutralization of the nucleus can cause what is observed as tail separation, and curved tails form depending on whether the comet is moving "downstream" or "upstream" through the zodiacal disc (i.e., relative angular velocity).

Some comets have been observed to "wander", that is, change their orbital descent (e.g., Hale-Bopp's period changed from 4200 to 2650 years in just one passage).

In McCanney's model, this is explained by the vast amount of material drawn into the comet tail. Comets are attracting these materials, not discharging them through "melting" of nonexistent ice and gas jets. This dusty material produces a gravitational drag, and has the effect of circularizing eccentric orbits, making them more uniform.

As a comet's orbit becomes circular (due to tail drag), it stops moving through the differently charged areas around the Sun, remaining in one region of electrical equipotential, thus losing its visibly charged tail. In essence, it evolves into an asteroid or potential moon in a stable orbit, its fiery early years over.

However, while comets are usually relatively small in size, some are potentially huge, discharging the entire solar capacitor, which can drain much of its energy and cause violent solar storms.

So, how do planets form?

McCanney follows Velikovsky in thinking that Venus is a relatively recent addition to our solar system, entering our solar system as a planet-sized comet that accreted a lot of mass in the proce

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