Nagpur University B.E. First Year Question Paper Social Science | RTMNU BE First Year Question Papers Download | Solved Paper sets Nagpur University B.E.
R.T.M.N.U. winter solution RMD/KW/10-2811
First Year B.E.Examination
1. (a) State the social changes occurred in Indian society during 19th & 20th centuries.
Ans: - Change is the law of the land. Every society changes gradually or sometimes spontaneously. The word change denotes a difference in anything observed over some period of time. Following are the social changes in Indian society during 19th and 20th centuries:-
1. Family Structure: There has been a tremendous change in family structure. The joint family has become a thing of the pas t which has been replaced with nuclear family structure. The size of the family has decreased due to industrialization, urbanization and modern education.
2. Caste System: The caste system has lost it significance due to the process of industrialization and urbanization. The efforts of Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Prathana Samaj have been commendable in removing untouchables from the society
3. Changes in the position of Backward Classes: The untouchable has been abolished under the article 17 of the constitution. Seats have been reserved for scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and backward classes in government jobs. Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar and the All-India caste federation played the key role in providing equal status to backward classes. Mahatma Gandhi also struggled for their cause.
4. Changes in the status of Women: The women had to face the evils of polygamy, the purda system, child marriage sati-system in the past. The reformists like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Mahatma Gandhi eradicated them from the society for the great emancipation of the Indian women. Now they are getting equal status and equal pay for equal work with men
5. Changes in the position of labour: The bounded labour has been abolished and various welfare schemes for the upliftment have been implemented. Child labour has become a serious crime. Indian Railways, Trade Union, Payment of wages, Workmens compensation, Employees state Insurance have been introduced to uplift the workers.
6. The Educational Expansion: The British altered indigenous system of education with English education system. It was Woods dispatch which sanctioned the establishment of first three universities in 1857. The Government of Indian also took serious efforts by appointing various commissions for the educational expansion during the post independence period.
7. Expansion of media: India has made a swift progress in the field of communication network. The newspapers are published which reach to the poorest of the poor. p ad id, television, internet etc. have made a deep inroad in our society.
8. Equality, National Integration and secularization: The elements of justice, liberty equality and fraternity are included in the preamble of our constitution. It has been resolved to constitute India into a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.
b) Explain Indus valley civilization with reference to monumental skills.
Ans: - lndus Valley Civilizations
l/-/ndus Valley civilization is the oldest living civilization in the world and has an amazing record of progress spread over almost five thousand years. It was in 1922 that Mr. R.D. Banerji in the course of excavation work on a Buddhist Stupa at Mohenjo-Daro in Sindh (now in Pakistan) discovered bricks of an unknown type which led to the identification of this ancient civilization in Indian history. The exploration made it abundantly clear that several centuries ago and before the coming of Aryans (about 2000 B.C.). There were great urban centers of life and activity along the course of river lndus. Their contribution to Indian society may be given in the following way:-
1. Town Planning:- The excavation so for made have disclosed that the lndus people had two great urban centre of civilization:- Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
a) Harappa: - are similar in size but the remains of this city are otherwise similar to these unearthed at Mohenjo-Daro.
b) Mohenjo-Daro:- Mohenjo-Daro is the oldest planned city in the world. It is situated on the banks of river lndus in the Larkana district of Sindh (now in Pakistan). Mohenjo-Daro had wide streets, laid out in a regular plan like our modern cities. The main road is 33 feet wide the other streets are about 13.5 feet in breadth.
2. Architecture: - The people of lndus valley were very skillful in the art of architecture the buildings are constructed throughout the city according to a) Harappa: - It is a ruined city on the banks of river Ravi in the Montgomery, district of Pakistan. It is located at the distance of 100 miles from Lahore. This city seems to have been biggest than Mohenjo-Daro. The houses discovered at some definite planning. The building can be classified into three categories. A) Dwelling houses or residential buildings.
B) Large building C) Public baths
A. Dwelling houses: - Residential houses at Mohenjo-Daro were of different sizes varying from a small house of two rooms to a building which was 220 feet by 115 feet. Each house had its well and drainage system. All houses were built of bricks which were usually well burnt and good quality. Floor of the houses were earthen and the roofs were flat and made of wood. The door of the houses vary from 3 ft to 7 ft in breadth, many big dwelling houses had two or more stories as indicated by marks of beams on the walls and the staircases of the houses. In one corner of the house there was a kitchen though most of the cooking was done in the court yard.
2. (a) Explain the steps of selection process for the personals in industry.
Selection is a process which involves evaluating and choosing among job seekers. It also involves rejection of candidature at various steps. Achievement of organizational objectives is facilitated effectively through selection.
Steps in the selection process:
A standard selection process involves seven steps. It varies from enterprise to enterprise, industry to industry and department to department and even within the same enterprise.
1) Preliminary Interview: It is candidates initial interview for making evaluation of suitability of the applicant. It is conducted at the employment office of the enterprise. Totally unsuitable candidate is eliminated at this stage which saves time and money of the enterprise.
2) Application Form.: Suitable candidates after preliminary interview are then supplied with the application bank. Application forms help the organization in obtaining information regarding qualification, experience, age and other details which serve as a record for the organization.
3) Employment Test: Candidates capacity and skill and knowledge required for the job are judge through tests. Different types of tests are conducted for different employees which are given below:
1) Intelligence Test: This test is conducted to judge mental ability such as ability to learn understand, take decisions etc. This test is conducted for all types of jobs.
2) Aptitude Test: This test is conducted to judge the candidates interest and liking for the job. It is suitable for clerical and commercial jobs.
3) Proficiency Test: This test is used to judge the proficiency and skill acquired by the candidate in performing a job. This test is also known as performance occupational or trade test.
4) Interest Test: This test is conducted to know the special inclination and involvement in the specific area.
5) Personality Test: This: test is conducted to know the different personality traits
4) Interview: Interview helps in seeking more information about the candidate and his suitability for the job. Candidates come to known about the terms and conditions, wages. The interviews should be conducted by the expert interviewer. But in practice, interviews are conducted by persons without required skill, experience and background.
5) Reference Checking: Further information in respect of candidates education, personal reputation, past employment, financial condition, family background police record etc. is obtained through the referees. Names of the referees are informed by the candidate while filling application form.
6) Medical Examination: It is a part of selection procedure for all suitable employees many industrial enterprises. A proper medical examination ensures healthy employees. It is conducted after the final decision has been taken to select the candidate.
7) Final selection: After clearing all the hurdles in selection procedure the candidate is selected and issued appointment letter. Initially appointment is on probation period up to two years only This provides an opportunity to the employer at watch his performance ability and character. This period also provides candidate a sufficient time to get acquainted and adjust himself with the environment of the organization. His services are confirmed after successful completion of this period.
b) Greek civilization is a cradle of western civilization. Comment.
Ans:- Greek Civilization
The study of civilization would be incomplete and limited without the knowledge of Greek civilization. The contribution of Greeks is immemorial in every field. The world will ever remain grateful to the Greeks for their contribution in the field of literature, art, Science and philosophy. They began to call themselves Hellenes, which means Greeks. Like other civilization, the Greeks also worshipped various Gods and Goddesses.
1. Rise of city-states and the origin of democracy: - The word democracy is the biggest contribution of Greeks, to the human civilization. Around 800 B.C. group of Greeks villages began joining into large units to form city states. Many cities emerged all over Greece-Sparta, Athens, Macedonia, Carinth, Thebes and others. In the beginning, the city-states were ruled by monarchs. The conflict between the poor farmers and landowners resulted in the rise of dictators or tyrants. They treated the common man very badly. In course of time they were overthrown, and most of the states established a democratic government.
2. The contribution of Alexander Empire: - Alexander is the greatest conqueror the world ever had. During the thirteen years from 336 to 323 B.C., he conquered almost all the large and the most powerful kingdoms of the word. His conquests brought many important changes to the world. It enhanced the trade between the European and Asian Countries.
Greek Literature and Philosophy:- They had contributed in every aspect of literature like epics, poetry, drama and history. The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer are the best epics of the world. Pindar, one of the greatest lyric poets, wrote poems to honor victorious athletes,. Sophocles is considered the greatest of the Greek tragedy writers. His Oedipus Rex Antigone and Electra are admired all over the world even today. Herodotus is considered as the father of history. He wrote some of the world earliest great histories .According to a great Roman writer. They brought philosophy down from heaven to the dwellings of man. The chief philosophers were following:
Socrates: - He was the most famous philosopher. He emphasized on knowledge and believed that it leads to right conduct and happiness. On the other hand ignorance leads to evil. He ignited the youth of his time to follow right conduct values. He criticized the popular beliefs of the Athenians. So, he was charged of corrupting the Youth and introducing new gods and forced to drink poison.
Plate: - He was the most distinguished student of Socrates. He firmly followed the ideals and principles of Socrates. He was a great master of polities and philosophy. He believed in the equality of man and opposed the division of society into three classes-the lowest class consisting of farmers and artisans and merchants, the second of soldiers, and the highest class of intellectuals in his book The Republic.
Aristotle: - He is the greatest of Greek philosopher. He was a student at the academy founded by Plato. He was his master and mentor. He was not only a great philosopher but also a great thinker. His contribution in the fields of politics, philosophy, ethics, science and medicine is matchless. He believed in the principles of the Golden means, that is, neither extreme luxury nor self-denial. He has influenced every aspect of mans life both directly and indirectly.
3. The Art of Writing:-Before Greeks, the alphabets were unknown to Mesopotamians and Egyptians. The Greeks had developed an alphabet which is other western alphabets in their development.
4. Art and Architecture:- They built finest temples of their time by using marbles. Each Greek temple had a chamber which was used to place the statue of god. The roof of the front and back porches were supported by columns. They built columns in a different style and which was the special feature of their temples. The temple to Athena, the Parthenon is the finest example of Greek architecture.
5. Art of sculpture : The, Greeks portrayed the noble and heroic deeds in their art of Sculpture. The beauty and courage was given the prime importance. They used to adore these two human qualities of human beings. They portrayed well built, noble and muscular bodies to portray the beauty of man. Myron and Phidias are the most famous and beautiful sculptures of ancient Greece.
6. Science and Mathematics: - The contribution of Greeks is unique in the field of science and Mathematics. In Medicine Hypocrites laid the foundation of modern science. Alexandria was the important center of study in medicine. Aristarchus prepared the theory that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun. In Mathematics, Pythagoras gave the world the concept of geometry.
7. Sports:- Greece is considered as the father of Olympic games. The event was held every four years at Olympia to honor the god Zeus. The first Olympic game was held at Athens in 776 B.C. Players used to come from all over Greece and enjoyed open air theatre, poetry reciting and conversation as well as athletic competitions.
Thus, the contribution of Greeks to the modern world is unique and marvelous. The world will always remain grateful to them for their achievements in the field of art, literature, and politics. Their concept of truth, beauty and wisdom is an important component of mankind.
3. a) Define civilization. State the difference between between culture and civilization.
Ans:- Civilization is the advanced form of culture. It is closely related to progress and much wider than culture.
Will Durant, the famous American historian has rightly observed: "When the Chaos and Confusion ends the civilization begins". In fact, the term civilization has hoary past. Usually the material aspect of culture is referred as civilization.
Concept of civilization:-
Definitions of Civilization
Mac lver: - "Civilization denotes all utilitarian things the whole mechanism and social organism techniques and material instruments which have been devised by man in his endeavors to control the conditions of his life"
Difference between Culture and Civilization
The terms "Culture" and "Civilization" are often distinguished on various grounds. Both represent two board fields of human activity and experience. Following Mac Iver, the important points of difference between culture and civilization may be described as follows:-
1. Civilization can be measure but not culture: - The product of civilization is such that they can be measured quantitatively on grounds of efficiency. Their efficiency can be estimated and in fact be measured. We can easily say that a lorry runs faster than a bullock cart an aero plane runs faster than lorry. The modern currency system is superior to than barter system. But we cannot measure the cultural products. If somebody says that the literary works of kalidas are better than the thereof shakespear, we cannot prove or disprove it, but we can only agree or disagree with the statement. Cultural things such as values, opinions, ideas, ideologies, morals, customs, beliefs, fashions etc. are beyond measurement.
2. Civilization is always advancing but not culture: - According to Mac lver. "Civilization not only marches, it always marches ahead, provided there is no catastrophic break of social continuity in the same direction. Civilization shows a persistent upward trend. Since man invented automobile, it has continuously improved. Similar is the case with other mean of transportation like Railway, Ship, Aero plane which are constantly growing more swift more efficient, and better designed. But culture is not always advancing. The height achieved by Gautama Buddha, Shankaracharaya and Swami Vivekananda in his field at religion and spirituality had not been reached by their followers. We cannot say that our poetry, drama and literature are superior to those of ancient times.
3. The products of civilization are more easily communicated than those of culture: - The products of civilization are open to all knowledge. Civilization can be passed on very easily and without much effort. We can enjoy the product of civilization without sharing the capacity which creates them. Millions may use radio, television, telephone, camera, etc. without understanding their techniques and mechanism. Products of culture on the other hand can be communicated only between like-minded those who have poetic talent can alone appreciate poetry. The work of an artist is only for a man with artistic appreciation.
4. Civilization is borrowed without loss or change but not culture: - People can borrow the products of civilization very easily. Technical devices and plants can be easily borrowed or transferred. It will be easy for an Indian to borrow a scientific technique invented in the west, but it will be difficult for a foreigner to borrow the Indian culture. Hence civilization is for more widespread than culture.
5. Civilization is external, but Culture is internal: - Civilization is external mechanical and utilitarian in character. It caters to the external needs of man. Civilization is a means and it reflects the material wealth of mankind. Culture is something internal. It refers to the intrinsic values. It is the expression of our modes of living and thinking in art and literature in philosophy and religion. Kant, the famous philosopher has pointed out that, civilization is a matter of outward behavior whereas culture requires morality as an inward state of man.
6. The products of culture reveal the nature of an individual or a social group or a nation but not the products civilization: - In culture, an artist or a poet or a painter can express his love of beauty, his admiration for literature, his fascination towards art by means of his artistic, literary or painting works. On the other hand an engineer cannot express his personality, his love of beauty his likes and dislikes, his morals and values by means of his machines, discoveries or inventions.
b) State the scope of industrial psychology.
Ans:- INCREASING SCOPE OF INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY.
The scope of industrial Psychology is increasing day by day. Previously it was limited to the various activities of the industry and its equipments. Now, the role: of worker has also been incorporated. McCollem an American Psychologist has given the various activities related to industrial Psychology.
1. Engineering Planning:- Planning is defined as the process of determination of organization .objectives and formulation of strategies Policies and programmer for achieving them. Industrial psychology provides information about various organizations and their effective set up, sale patterns etc. It. also -provides the human needs and may not affect the physical and mental health of the workers. The human atmosphere adequate condition should be created.
2. Selection of the workers:- The objective of selection process is to determine whether an individual meets the qualification for a specific job and to choose the applicant who is most likely to perform well in that particular job. Through industrial Psychology the management can assess the skill and capability of an individual. The management can also use the man power in the best possible way.
3. Training and Development of Workers:- After selection procedure, the workers are trained in the best possible method. Industrial Psychology must provide training to them to perform better in their job. It is the process of determining man power and employs them according to their performance in the training. Industrial Psychology has to discover the critical areas where training is to be given on a priority basis.
4. Management Process: - Management process is defined as an inter-related set of functions or activities undertaken by managers in order to achieve, certain goals. The various activities of the management like planning, organizing, directing, controlling are influenced with industrial Psychology. The management process can be handled by understanding various psychological, sociological problems closely related with each other.
5. Accident Preventions and safety measures:- The occurring of accidents is very common in industry. Through Psychology the cause of the accidents can be learnt and proper strategy and planning can be made to prevent such accidents in future. Such accidents hinder the growth of industry and create various problems in the smooth functioning of the industrial unit.
6. Study of Productivity:- It also includes the study of productivity of the industrial unit. Various factors are. Responsible in the smooth-functioning of the industrial unit. The Psychologists also suggest various method and measures to be employed for getting better result. They can also suggest the latest machine and equipments and the progress being made in other industries from time to time.
7. Labor Unions:- Labor unions play a major role in increasing production influencing the various activities of industries. Psychology keeps a close vigil on the various activities of these unions. Labor unions and management should a maintain a cordial relationship with each other. Industrial Psychology creates a conducive atmosphere by making unions and management close.
4. a) Define motivation. Explain any one theory of motivation.
Ans: - MOTIVATION
There are two important questions about a mans behavior, what does a man do and why? What is related with the form of behavior, a man presents on the work and why is related with the motivating factors that are inherent in the man and affect his behavior of the work. If a man does not behave properly we must understand that there is something wrong with him and the organization should take proper care in analyzing and if possible in eliminating that reason. For that purpose, the management must have a full knowledge of human behavior and human motivation.
Motive can be defined as needs, wants, drives within an individual. Need is one of the motivation factor. If a man behaves properly, it means his needs are satisfied and if his needs remain unsatisfied, his behavior cannot remain satisfactory and he will behave, in a negative way some of those needs are primary needs, without which a man cannot survive such as food, cloth and shelter. So the primary concern of the manager is to motivate subordinates at work and to create an atmosphere where suitable incentives are available for satisfaction of their needs.
What are the major theories of motivation? Critically review of Maslows need priority theory
Maslows need priority model theory
The following important proposition has been advanced by A.I.I. Maslow about human behavior in analyzing his model.
a) Wants are endless: - Wants of a man are innumerable and never ending So, as soon a5 one of his wants is satisfied another appears in its place.
b) A satisfied need is no more a motivator:- As soon as one need is satisfied. It looses its capacity to induce the man to work and only unsatisfied needs or fresh needs can motivate people to work.
c) Needs have Hierarchy of Importance:- Maslow is of the opinion that needs are satisfied in an order. As soon as the lower level needs are satisfied, those on the next hi her level emerge and demand satisfaction.
Maslow Need Hierarchy
Maslow has suggested the following hierarchy of needs which an individual attempts to satisfy in order.
1) Basic Physiological Needs: - The Physiological needs concern the needs of human body such as food, shelter and cloth. They are basic to preserve human life and are more or less universal.
2) Safety and security needs: - These needs come second in the hierarchy and are concerned with the physical and financial security. These include job security, physical security, security of income, old age provision etc.
3) Belongingness, Social or Love needs :- Man being a social animal is always interested to live in a society or group which loves him most. He wants to give or receive love. These needs refer to the needs of conversation, capability, exchange of feeling and grievances, recognition and belongingness.
4) Esteem and status Needs: - Next in the hierarchy are esteem or egoistic needs. These needs may be: i) Self-Esteem ii) Public-Esteem
5) Self Actualization or Self-Realization Needs: - These are individual needs for realizing his own potentialities, opportunity for creativity and for continuous development of the individual power and skill. In other words these are what a person considers to be his mission in life.
Criticism of Maslows theory of motivation
Maslows need priority model is a landmark in the field of motivation. This hierarchical concept of needs helps the management in understanding the human behavior of people at work. His approach is very simple, direct and practical. Apart from its utility, the concept has been criticized by the critics on the following ground:-
1) This model may not apply at all times in all places and in all circumstances. It may not follow the sequence as postulated by Maslow.
2) There are many determinants of behavior than needs and desires. Thus, the behavior of man is not a result of his needs or desires only.
3) The approach also overlooks the inter-action of needs. A person is hardly motivated by a single need. Motivation is caused by several needs at a time.
4) People differ in their expectations significantly. The same need does not lead to the same response in all individual. For example: - People who have been satisfying their basic needs throughout their lives may not be very keen to satisfy higher order needs.
b) What is work curve? Explain the remedies for fatigue.
Ans:-The Meaning of Work curve: - It is that type of curve which shows the relationship between production & Working Hours. Below diagram shows working hours on X axis & Production on Y axis.
Main features of Work curve:-
1) First Hour (Warming period): - During the first hour, there is a very gradual rice in the work.
It includes the physiological adjustment to the work such as limbering of muscles. & various circulatory adjustment.
2) Second & third Hours: - During 2nd &3rd period the production reaches its peak .Then it usually falls off. This decrease in production reflects the presence of industrial fatigue.
3) Third &fourth Hours:-It indicates recovery from fatigue due to rest hours .Then again the curve falls off more rapidly. The last hours shows lowest production .This may not be due to fatigue but due to the tendency to quite early.
Fatigue in common has been defined as a reduction in ability to work because of previous work. This reduction in ability to do work is caused by a variety of changes from chemical to psychological and physical.
Remedies for fatigue.
1) Hours of work:-In general it has been accepted that 8 hours of work per day &40 hours of work per week will neither decrease the efficiency of the worker nor will cause avoidance of work.
2) Rest pause: - it is one of the ways to combat Fatigue. The duration & the frequency of this official rest pause depend upon the type of work, length of the work and the level of motivation.indivisual differences are also a factor.
3) Shift Work:-It is another remedies of Fatigue which adopted in most of the industries because it fulfills the increasing demand of production .it affects health too. but psychologists believe that it is due to the attitude of workers. Its adverse effects can be avoided by placing the worker on various shifts of his own choice.
5. Write short notes on any three of the following.
a) Advantages of training.
Boredom and Monotony
The terms boredom and monotony refers to inevitable effects of repetitive work. It includes persons unfavorable attitude and feelings towards the task he is doing.
It develops when a person finds it difficult to perform the same work continuously. It has different effects on different individuals. If the worker has to 1 do any work repeatedly again and again he looses his interest in his work consequently his efficiency decreases.
Measures against boredom and monotony
1) The job rotation may be helpful in controlling boredom.
2) Short-term fixation of targets to motivate the workers to achieve them.
3) Recognition of talent to improve the performance of the workers.
4) Incentives and Bonus will also be helpful in eliminating boredom.
5) Recreation facilities should be provided to entertain the workers.
6) The Internal and External environment must be appropriate which helps in achieving the goal.
7) Cultural programmed may be arranged regularly to reduce the job stress
c) Applied Humanities.
Ans: - All those subjects that are related with the origin, organization and development of human society belong to Humanities. These are very important to understand the various aspects which directly or indirectly influence the human behavior. Man has to live within the frame work of society. The knowledge of humanities helps him in becoming more vigilant with the surrounding to develop the humanitarian approach in life. He is facilitated to satisfy his aesthetic and spiritual values in the art literature and social science under the broad category of Humanities or individual may explore many innovative designs in the pursuit of knowledge. He can apply those designs to enhance his intellectual as well as physical capacity for getting absolute contentment in life.
Fundamental insights pertaining to the major discoveries in the humanities are to be utilized through Applied Humanities. It promotes peace and order for bringing universal brotherhood in the word. It develops a feeling of belongingness and love for reaching to the stage of self-fulfillment. According to Rajni Tondon, Applied Humanities seeks to project designs for sustaining, maintaining and regenerating collective life of peaceful co- existence in the entire global situation.
Main Applications of Applied Humanities
1. Applied Humanities are the savior of the legacy of culture and civilization.
2. Applied Humanities suggest the means of living good life by visualizing the best and ideal possibilities.
3. Applied Humanities provides the solution of various problems which are found in our contemporary society. They inspire us to follow the right path. For overcoming the obstacles which harm our interest.
4. The knowledge of Applied Humanities can be the source of solving the human problems of situational discontent, unusual expectations, deep hurts and fearful insecurities.
5. The study of Applied Humanities helps us to bring stability and safety in our life.
6. Applied Humanities enlighten us by creating political, social and culture awareness to face the varied challenges of life.
7. Applied Humanities enrich the feeling of equality brotherhood and nationalism. These are the source of patriotism which ignites us to dedicate ourselves for our country.
d) Pyramid & sphinx.
The Pyramids:- One of the wonders of the world, the pyramids are located on the banks of the Nile. The Egyptians used to preserve the dead bodies of pharaohs in pyramids because of their belief in the resurrection of the soul. Their dead bodies are known as mummies. There are sixty pyramids and the most beautiful is located at Giza near Cairo. The gigantic structure was built by Cheops (Khufu) who ruled Egypt from 2878 to 2875 B.C. This structure is over 450 feet high and it covers an area of about 14 acres. It contains 2, 300, OO stones weighing on the average 2.5 tons each. According to Herodotus, the greatest ancient Greek historian 300,000 men worked for twenty years to complete this structure which is made of huge blocks of stone. These blocks were cut into shape and rolled up a slope and fitted together skillfully and carefully. This required an amazing degree of engineering skill. It is generally believed that Egyptian wanted their name to become immortal in the history of mankind and this inspired them to build these classic gigantic pyramids
1. The Sphinx: The Sphinx is another example of peculiar specimen of Egyptian architecture. It is a mythological animal with the body of lion and the head of man. It is one of the largest and most impressive specimens of Egyptian culture. Each sphinx was carved out of a single stone. The largest of these is located near the pyramids of Giza, and it was built by Chopra, Khufus brother in (2867- 2811 B.C.) It is 45 meter in length and 18 meter in height. Egyptians used to believe that the sphinx protects them against foreign invasions and natural disasters these were statues of "Hu" their guardian watcher and were installed at the entrance of the town.
e) Industrial sociology.
Sociology is the science of society it alone studies social relationships, society itself. Sociology is interested relationship not because they are economic or political or religious or legal or educational but because they are at the same time social. Industrial sociology deals with industrial society with all its complexities. It is that branch of Sociology, which concerns mainly with the industrial relations of man. It examines the various industrial organizations and institutions, their interrelations and links with the other institutions and organizations of the wider society.
"Industrial Sociology is a part of sociology of organizations and includes occupational sociology."Nosow and farm
Industrial Sociology is the Application of the sociological approach to the reality and problems of industry "P.Gilbert"
THE NATURE OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIOLGY
In the beginning, in Industrial sociology much of the work was limited to the .analysis of rather restricted problems. But today its field of activity is developing. It includes the analysis of industrial institutions and Organization.
1. The study of the social structure of industry: - It includes the study of social structure of industry. The study the social structure of industry is very necessary to understand the conflict between the workers and management.
2. The Understanding of human society: - It helps to understand the human- society. Sociology itself deals with human nature and activities. These factors directly and indirectly affect the industrial unit. The understanding of human culture and society, the intrinsic and extrinsic factors have been included in industrial Sociology.
3. The study of relationship between human activities and social activities: - Its field of activity is very broad. It studied the relations between mans industrial activities on the one hand and his political, economic, educational and other activities on the other hand.
4. Understanding the problems of industrial Workers: - It has thrown light upon the problems of industrial workers. It also suggests ways and means of improving the living condition of worker. It makes provisions for successful implementations of various welfare schemes for workers and the dignity of labor can be maintained.
5. The importance of Trade Unions: - The role of trade-unions is very important in the industrial unit. The trade-unions can influence the decision of the management through various means. Industrial Sociology has stressed upon the important role of trade-unions in settling industrial disputes.
SCOPE OF THE INDUSTRIAL SOCIOLOGY:-
Industrial Sociology deals with the total organization of the work place. It also deals with three different organizations which can be conceived as distinguishable but interrelated.
(A) Internal industrial Relations
1. Management Organization: - It refers to the relations between management and the workers. It also includes policies, programmed structure and the functioning of the management. It gives main emphasis on the formal relation developed by the workers with the management.
2. Informal Organization of workers:- It consists of informal relations developed voluntarily by the workers themselves. Such relations are established by the individuals and small group within the factory industry. Such organizations assume the form of gangs, friendship groups, bands etc.
3. Mixed Relations: - It refers to the role of a trade Union and the participation or involvement of workers in union activities. Trade Unions are playing a vital role in creating industrial unrest and maintaining industrial peace. They also control the formal and informal relations of workers.
(B) External Industrial Relations
It aims at maintaining cordial relationship with different industrial sectors. It also collects information of the very set-up infrastructure, planning and strategy, welfare schemes for workers and the scale of production etc. These products and measures may be borrowed from external sources to enhance the production well as to maintain order and harmony in 0rganization
6. a) Explain line organization with its merits and demerits.
Organizations are social entities which co-ordinate the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common goal through division of labour and through well defined system of working. An organization combines and co-ordinates as group efforts in an enterprise.
Taylor:-"Organization is a tool or design with which people work"
Moonev and Railey: - "Organization is the form of every human association for the attainment of a common purpose.
When authority flows from top to the subordinate at the lowest level in more or less straight line, it is known as line organization. It is the backbone of the organization. The senior has direct control over his subordinates who in turn have direct authority over subordinate.
Everyone in the organization report to only one immediate superior. It is a simple form of internal organization in which authority flows downward and accountability flows upward in a direct pattern between the top management and first line managers.
Board of Directors
Production Finance Marketing Personnel
Manager Manager Manager Manager
Foreman Foreman Foreman Foreman
Workers Workers Workers Workers
Merits of Line 0rrranization:-
1) It is simple to understand and easy to operate as the authority flows from top to bottom in a single line.
2) There are quick decisions and prompt actions because the line executives can take their own decision.
3) Discipline can be maintained easily because the relationship between the authority and responsibility are clearly mentioned.
4) Each employee knows to whom he is answerable, thus, responsibility is more clearly fixed.
1) It adversely affects the process of communication due to different levels of management.
2) Managers are overburdened with executive work which harms their creativity as well as planning
3) There is lack of specialization in different executives. Sometimes, they have to do the work in which they are not expert which causes the loss of efficiency.
4) The line executive adopts the dictatorial or autocratic attitude when they get limitless powers.
5) It is not suitable for a large business transaction.
What do you mean by line and staff organization? Discuss its merits & demerits
b) State the directive principals of State policy.
The chapter on the Directive Principles of State Policy is a unique feature of Indian Constitution
The Directive Principles of State Policy enshrined in our constitution Articles 36 to 51 of the Indian Constitution embodies the Directive Principles of State Policy and for this we are indebted to the constitution of Ireland. The Objective of these principles is to establish a social and economic democracy in India. Although the Indian Constitution has made no classification of the Directive Principles of state policy yet keeping in view their nature and objectives they may be divided into the following distinct categories :-
1) Social Principles- In this category those principles have been included which will make India a socialist state.
a) Establishment of such social system which will secure social, economic and political justice to all in all spheres of life.
b) Free and compulsory education to all children below the age of 14 years.
c) Protection of natural environment , forest and wild life
d) Raising the level of nutrition and the standard of living. The health of the people should be improved.
e) Protection of historical places, monuments and places of national importance
f) Promotion of the education and economic interests of the weaker sections of the society.
g) Total ban on the consumption of liquor and alcoholic drugs.
h) Equal pay for equal work both for men and women.
i) Creation of just and human conditions for work and the provision of maternity relief
2) Economic Principles: The following Directive Principles can be included in this category:-
1) Securing adequate means of livelihood for all its citizens by securing social, economic and political justice.
2) Protection of children from explosion and arrangement of opportunities and facilities in a healthy, free and respectable environment.
3) Prohibition of ban of the slaughtering of cows, clave or other milk cattle
4) Proper allocation of ownership and distribution of material sources for common good.
5) Safeguarding the interest of the laborers who enter vocation unsuitable to their strength and age.
3) Political Principles:
1) Implementation of Uniform Civil Code for all the people throughout the territory 17 of India.
2) Separation of the Judiciary from the executive.
3) Organization of Panchayats in village and to enable to act as units of self government.
4) Development of the cottage industry in rural areas.
4. International Principles:
a) Promotion of international peace and security.
b) Maintaining just and honorable relations among various states in the world.
c) Promotion of respect for International treaties, agreement and law.
d) Settlement of international dispute by arbitration.
7. a) Explain the importance and styles of leadership in industry.
Leadership may be defined in terms of totality of function performed by executives as individuals as a group. It is also a relationship in which one person, or leader influence other to work together willingly or related task to attain that which the leader desires.
Keith Davis: - "Leadership is an important factor for making organization successful. Without a good leader the organization cannot function efficiently
Classification of Leadership
The leadership styles are also known as leadership techniques. The various styles adopted by leader in relation to their followers are commonly classified on the basis of location of decision making into four distinct categories. Charismatic style Autocratic style Free-rein style and participative style.
1) The Autocratic Style: Under this style. Of leadership, all decision making power is centralized. This leader who allows a very nominal role, or does not allow at all any role to his subordinates in the decision making process. He does not give subordinates the freedom to influence his thinking, decision or behavior. He does not care to know the feeling of his subordinates. It is but natural that this type of leadership mars employee motivation, morale and productivity.
2) The Free-Rein Style: This leadership style is just like Laissez-Faire policy. Such leaders completely surrender of all decision making to the group of their subordinates. The leader completely abdicates his leadership position, leaves all responsibility to the group which is supposed to lead. Thus, it is a permissive style of leadership where there is the least intervention of the leader. The group operates entirely on its own under such leadership.
3) The Participative Style: The participative style of leadership is also known as democratic leadership. Such leadership allows the active participation of the subordinates in the process of decision making. The leader adopting this style participates and helps the subordinates in coming to decision. They are friendly to their subordinates, they take approval from them and they favor group decision making. In general employee oriented leadership style, giving due importance to the needs, motives and feelings of the employees, has a positive and satisfying impact on their behavior towards work. Such group is very adaptive and responsive. They welcome any change in work, situation and condition, etc.
4) Paternalistic Style: This leader treats his employees as his children due to this the subordinates work hard for organization. He looks after their needs very seriously and implements those measures which may improve their condition. Thus, he builds a very good family atmosphere at the work place.
5) Job Centered and Employee centered Leadership: There are two groups of supervisors found in industry-employee centered and job-centered. The employee centered supervisors concentrate more on the human aspects and give more importance to social personal and physical attitude to ensure better performance. The job centered concentrate more on the work assigned to any individual, infrastructure, planning, controlling and production etc. They motivate the subordinates to achieve glory and success in their life.
b) Define authority. Give the reasons for delegation of authority.
Every managerial action requires authority. It is a key to managerial functions. Authority, command, obedience and force compliance. George Terry defined authority, "as the official and legal right to command action on others and to enforce compliance."
Authority is exercised by making decisions and seeing that they are carried out.
Delegation of Authority
When the work of an executive increases he has to divide it among his subordinates. In doing this, he naturally expects that each subordinate will do the job as he himself would have done. This process of dividing the job is known as delegation. Delegation is simply a matter of dividing the job to others. There are no hard and fast rules regarding how and when authority is delegated and to what extent. Delegation of authority is merely a matter of convenience.
Process of Delegation
Authority, Responsibility and Accountability are the process of and delegation.
The delegation grants authority. It gives the subordinate the permission to the delegated part and also certain rights which are necessary for him to perform his part of job. -
It may be expressed in terms of functions or in terms of good result. A mans responsibilities are clear to him only when he knows what activities he 1 I must undertake and what mission he must fulfill. Once the responsibility is taken the person is bound to perform the task according to the established standards.
The delegation creates an obligation i.e. the subordinates take an obligation from his superior to complete the job
Principles and Guidelines for Delegation of Authority
1) Authority should be co-extensive with responsibility:-
Duties are related to objectives, whole authority is concerned with rights and obligations and with attitudes. The authority and responsibility cannot be equalized but as far as possible they should be co-extensive with responsibility
2) Responsibility cannot be delegated:-
When authority is delegated to a subordinate by an executive, the executive should not free himself from the responsibility. He is still responsible for that particular task.
3) Dual subordination should be avoided:-
It is necessary to ensure that a member of an enterprise should have only one line supervision and dual supervision should be avoided.
, 4) Principle, of Unity command:-
Each subordinate should be asked to report only one superior except in the case of shared authority. The power must flow from a single superior to the single subordinate.
8. Explain the salient features of Indian constitution.
Outstanding features of Indian Constitution
The Indian Constitution was adopted on January 26, 1950 It is based on the following objectives:-we the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute Indian in to Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Justice-social, Economic and political, liberty of thought, belief, faith and work ship equality of status and opportunity, fraternity assuring the dignity of individual and the unity and integrity of the nation Outstanding features of Indian Constitution are the below:-
1) Written Constitution: - The Indian constitution is written constitution which has 395 articles and 10 Schedule. It was completed in 2-years 11 months and 18 days i.e. on 26th Nov, 1949 it is the most descriptive and the lengthiest constitution of the world.
2) A Combination of Rigidity and Flexibility:-The Indian Constitution is a combination of rigidity and flexibility. Two methods have been mentioned in Articles 368 for making an amendment in the constitution. According to the First method 2\3 majority of the members of parliament can amend the constitution the subjects related to the distribution of powers between the centre and state. In the second method 2\3 majority of the members of parliament and the ratification by at least half the state legislative assemblys members is essential.
3) Popular Sovereignty:- The Indian Constitution makes a strong provision, which in a great way try to establish the principle of popular sovereignty. The supreme power is vested in her people, which exercise this authority through their elected representatives elected on the basis of universal adult franchise.
4) Liberal Democracy :- India is a democratic state and a large number of liberal democratic principles have been included in our constitution:-
c) The supreme authority vests with the people of India.
d) Every citizen of India, who attains the age of 18 years, is given the right of vote.
e) Provisional of rule of law has been made
f) The judiciary has been made independent
5) Secularism: - Secularism ensures development of all citizens. It teaches people the noble ideal of tolerance and co-existence and thus assures security to the religious minorities. The Indian constitution grants freedom of religion to religious minorities and thus ensures the end of all sorts of discrimination based on religion.
6) Republic: - authority vests with the people and their representatives. The supreme executive the head of the state is elected directly or indirectly by the people of the state for a fixed tenure.
7) Democratic Socialism: - of our constitution. We have established Democratic Socialism which is neither the philosophy Marxian socialism nor the Chinese Socialism but Socialism by democratic means and the respect and dignity f the individual is of the highest I value for us.
8) Single Citizenship: - federal states. But the principle of single citizenship has been adopted in India. There are similar conditions of citizenship and equal rights for every citizen I residing in India.
9) Supreme of Judiciary:- Court in lndia which performs the role of the guardian and interpreter of the 1 Constitution. In India, the Supreme Court can declare any act of the Union Supremacy of the Judiciary- The provision has been made the Supreme the constitution.
10) Fundamental Rights: - This is the outstanding feature of Indian Constitution. The inclusion of the Fundamental Rights from chapter Ill bf the Indian Constitution is an important landmark in the process of making available to every citizen social, economic and political justice. Those rights afford a basis for the development of the individual and the people and officials of lndia are bound to obey these rights.
11) Directive Principles of State Policy: - Article 36 to 51 o f Indian Constitution embodies the Directive Principles of State Policy and for these we are indebted to the constitution of Ireland.
12) Protection of the interest of Minorities and Scheduled Caste and Backward class: - The Articles 25 to 30 in the constitution safeguards the interest of the minorities freedom, cultural and educational rights. Seats have also been reserved for Scheduled Caste and Backward Class in government service, state legislative assemblies and Lok Sabha.
13) Promotion of World Peace: - According to article 51 the Indian state would promote international peace cordial relation among various countries of the world. It would maintain mutual respect and dignity among these states of the world. Besides this, the law of the Indian land would also maintain the respect for International treaties contracts
b) Define Bureaucracy. Explain the characteristics of Bureaucracy.
The word bureaucracy has a French origin. When policy maker or politicians find they cannot do any particular work or the work has exceeded manageable bounds, they share their task with other. Again, those who have been assigned of responsibilities they share task with their sub-ordinates. All those who connect the workers with policy-makers can be called bureaucrats and the whole system as bureaucracy. In other words, the bureaucracy may be regarded as the government by the Civil Servants to carry on the administration of the state.
"A systematic organization of tasks and individuals into a pattern which can most effectively achieve the ends of collective efforts".
CHARACTRISICS OF BUREAUCRACY:-
If bureaucracy has been assigned to carry on the administration and to frame the important policies of the state. It is desired that the bureaucracy ought to be rational, efficient, reliable and predictable with certain clearly noticeable ways of functioning. This way of functioning was first noticed by Max Weber around 1900. He is regarded as the father of bureaucracy. Following are the important characteristics of bureaucracy by Max Weber.
1) Division of Work: - The work is divided at every level in bureaucracy into some broad groups and subgroups. The process of division is continued. Till the job of an individual becomes specific. Due to this only each individual has to do a limited work. This division of work improves the efficiency, performance and I capability of an individual.
2) Rules and Regulations: - The rules and regulations are the very basis of success of any organization or administration. Through rules and regulations, and discipline can be maintained and the efficiency can be made possible. The administration becomes free from individual whim and consistency comes in various parts of the system. The same rule is I applied to each and every individual at any time.
3) Scale of authority: - The superior guides the behavior of his subordinates. The area of jurisdiction of superior authority and the sub-ordinates are fixed and specified. Therefore, they do not interfere into the internal affairs of each other. The sub-ordinate does not all time wait for instruction of his authority he can also take the independent decision.
4) Maintenance of records: - Records and instructions are issued in writing. It also helps the superior to remain aware about the task which has been assigned to that individual.
5) Expert Training: - Every person should be provided expert training in order to improve his performance. This is the only way to make the organization efficient and effective unit. A person can handle the most difficult situation if he is well-trained.
6) Interpersonal relations:- The interpersonal relations are not given any importance in bureaucracy. There relations hinder the smooth functioning of the administration and also damage the organizational set up. Therefore, in a bureaucracy interpersonal relations are formal and emotional and sentiments have no consideration.
7) The Recruitment through Judicial method: - The recruitment is done on the basis merits and achievement and not on the basis of caste, colour, religion and creed. Regionalism is not given any importance.
8) Good Salary:-The bureaucratic system offers the handsome salary to its employees. This helps them in making their both ends meet quiet easily. Moreover it provides them opportunity for leisure and recreation.
9) Job Security:-It ensures job security to the employees who work under it. They hold the post and position till their retirement which helps them to develop a sense of belongingness towards the organization.
10) Promotion:-The promotions are given on the basis of seniority, performance and achievement. Pension, gratuity and medical facilities are also provided to the employees.
11) Free from Corruption:-The members have technical competency as well as intellectual attitude which develop the professional outlook. It discourages them to involve in any type of corruption both within and outside the organization.
9. a) Explain internal & external environment for the development of industries.
Internal and External Environment
Environment factors in industry can be broadly classified into two categories.
1) Internal Environment
2) External Environment
Internal environment in the factory consists of factors like proper lightning, noise, ventilation, temperature, painting, music etc.
Proper Lightening: Human eyes cannot adjust to every kind of illumination. It has been noticed that this factor is often neglected in the internal environment of the industry. Therefore, proper soothing light is necessary in the industry for reducing fatigue among the workers.
Noise: Noise is the inevitable aspect of industrial situation and it adversely affects the efficiency of the worker. The intensity of noise should be minimized and earplugs must be provided to the workers.
Temperature: The temperature at working place affects the body temperature. Unsuitable temperature has adverse affect on the productivity of the worker. So the temperature suiting to the body of the worker should be maintained.
Air flow ventilation: The movement of air prevents stagnant air from accumulating about the body and machinery circulation prevents formation of pockets of warm and moist air. Workers, if not provided with proper ventilation always complaint of headache, drowsiness and laziness. Dust and foreign matter in the air produce harmful effects on health as well as on attitudes of the workers. Ventilating system which moves and controls the humidity and temperature is always a sound investment from the point of view of efficient management.
Colour: There is a controversy among researchers whether colour affects efficiency or not. In industrial set-up this controversy centers around the colour that is used for painting wall, machine and tools. Some colours have depressing effects while other cheerful and eye soothing.
Music: The general findings show that the employees like music. At - least 75 percent favor it and 1 to 2 percent strongly oppose it music influences boredom too. Music if played properly creates interest among the workers in their duty. It helps in removing fatigue and loss of interest.
External Environment: Workers are most loyal and co-operative when they have pride in their work and employees. A management effort to increase the attractiveness of the job environment is one way of building this pride. Attractive physical appearance of the plant is conducive in developing sense of identification with the company. It also causes employees to feel that the company considers them important to deserve such an environment. They also have more pride in their jobs. Clean toilets, washrooms, spittoons and modest rest rooms with comfortable seats should be provided to the workers. Comfortable lounges should be accessible to them. Company cafeterias and restaurants providing meals at a low cost should be situated in the company premises. Employees living conditions outside the plant is also important. Workers travel time from house to place of work should not be lengthy or tiresome. Some other means are following:-
a) Suitable infra structure
b) clean environment
c) Proper living accommodation with the campus
d) Proper transport facility
e) Proper education facilities to the children of employees.
f) Proper medical facility
g) Recognition of efficiency
h) Incentives and awards
b) Explain the causes of Urbanization in India.
URBANIZATION: - Urbanization is the process of changes in the society through various mode and pattern. Industrialization, communication, transports and communication, educational and recreation facilities provide a ground for urbanization. Industrialization and Urbanization go together but it is the later which prepares a ground and terms and conditions for the former one. Indian society is getting urbanized day by day. Due to slow development in the field of agriculture, unemployment, poverty, hunger, lucrative life has increased urbanization in India. Indian cities are growing in area and population. They are adopting new trades, culture and manners. .
Definition of Urbanization: - Prof. M.S.Gore
"The term urbanization is used to refer to the increasing ratio of urban-dwelling persons to the non-urban dwelling person, in a country".
9. Write short notes on any three of the following.
a) Fundamental Rights:-
The Fundamental rights
The chapter of Fundamental Rights from Article 14 to 35 in Chapter Ill of the Indian Constitution is an important landmark in the process of making available to every Indian citizen social, economic and justice. The Fundamental Rights included in the constitution are divided into the following six categories: - .
I] Right to Equality: Article 14 to 18:-
The right to equality is the very basis of a democratic state. The right to equality has been incorporated in the Indian Constitution from Articles 14-18 to abolish the discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, color and races.
a) Article 14 provides that the state shall not deny person equality before law or equal protection of law within the territory of lndia.
b) According to article 15 of the Constitution no citizen will be discriminate against on the basis of religion, race, caste, and birth-place Collectively or individually.
c) Article 16-Each citizen will get equality of opportunity.
d) An article 17-The century old melody of untouchablilty has been abolished.
e) Article 18-With the exception of military and educational title the state will not confer any other title on an individual.
ii] Right of Freedom: - Articles 19 of the Indian constitution confers the following six freedom to the citizen of India:-
a) Freedom of speech and expression.
b) Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms.
c) Freedom to form associations and unions.
d) Freedom move freely throughout the territory of lndia.<