additive color – Images with color elements derived from the light source itself. RGB is a common form of additive color. See also RGB.

adjustment – Any change to the appearance of an image. See also brushed adjustment.

Adobe RGB (1998) – A color profile commonly used for printing. See also color space.

album – A type of container in the Aperture library that holds only versions. You can create albums at either the project level or within a project. There are specialized types of albums, including book, Light Table, webpage, web journal, and slideshow albums. See also folder, library, project, Smart Album, version.

alternate – The photo immediately next to the pick in a stack. Alternate photos are useful when more than one photo in a stack merits the pick position. See also image, pick, stack.

Alternate setting – A secondary Viewer setting that presents the currently selected photo on the secondary Viewer display. See also display, image, main Viewer, primary selection, secondary Viewer.

ambient light – The lighting characteristics that already exist in the scene (indoor or outdoor) without any additional light supplied by the photographer.

analog-to-digital conversion – The process of transforming light energy voltage values captured by the camera’s digital image sensor into binary (digital numbers) for processing and storage. See also digitization, quantization.

angle of view – The area of the scene displayed within the frame. Determined by the focal length of the lens.

aperture – An adjustable iris or diaphragm in the lens through which light passes. Measured in f-stops. See also f-stop.

aperture priority – A setting on certain cameras that automatically sets the shutter speed for a correct exposure based on the aperture setting provided by the photographer. See also exposure, shutter priority.

archive – The process of storing image data on a permanent medium, such as optical media (CD or DVD).

aspect ratio – The ratio of height to width of the dimensions of a photograph. Common North American aspect ratios are 3.5 x 5, 4 x 6, 5 x 7, 11 x 14, and 16 x 20 inches.

audio attachment – An audio file that has been attached to a photo, either in the camera that captured the photo or within Aperture. Audio attachments are often audio notations recorded by the photographer while shooting a photo.

audio clip – An instance of a segment of audio in Aperture; an audio file’s version. See also audio file, version.

audio file – The source media file on disk to which an audio clip in Aperture refers; the audio clip’s original. See also audio clip, original.

autofocus – The system within the camera that automatically focuses the lens on a specific portion of the subject or scene. See also autofocus point overlays.

autofocus point overlays – Overlays displayed over photos in the Viewer that show which autofocus mode was used by the camera and which focal point was used to focus the photo when it was captured. You turn on autofocus point overlays by clicking the Autofocus Points button in the Camera Info pane of the Info inspector. You can also temporarily view autofocus point overlays by placing the pointer over the Autofocus Points button. See alsoautofocus.

automatic bracketing – A setting on many professional cameras that automatically brackets the exposure of the photo. See also bracketing.

background – The area in the rear of the image that appears behind the subject. See also depth of field,foreground.

backlighting – A light source that faces toward the lens of the camera, emanating from behind the subject. Backlighting makes the outline of the subject stand out from the background, often resulting in a silhouette. See also frontlighting, sidelighting, silhouette.

badge overlay – A small icon Aperture places on a photo to indicate that an adjustment, keyword, or other change has been applied to it. See also adjustment, keywords, offline.

Bayer pattern color filter array – A specific arrangement of red, green, and blue lenses attached to the surface of a digital image sensor. There are roughly twice as many green lenses as blue and red to accommodate how the human eye perceives color. See also charge-coupled device (CCD), complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), digital image sensor.

bit depth – The number of tonal values or shades of a color each channel in a pixel is capable of displaying. Increasing the bit depth of color channels in an image’s pixels exponentially increases the number of colors each pixel can express. See also color channels, color depth.

Black & White adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture that allows you to selectively control the source red, green, and blue color channels when a color image is converted to grayscale. See also adjustment, grayscale, image,monochrome.

black point compensation – Black point compensation ensures that black and white luminance values are appropriately scaled to fit within the range or gamut of the destination device (printer, paper, and ink). Using black point compensation helps prevent clipping in shadows because the blacks are scaled to fit within the gamut of the printer, paper, and ink.

Black Point parameter – An Exposure adjustment parameter in Aperture used to set the blacks in the image. See also Exposure adjustment.

Black setting – A secondary Viewer setting that sets the secondary Viewer display to be a blank screen. See alsodisplay, secondary Viewer.

Blur Quick Brush – A type of Quick Brush adjustment that softens the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Quick Brushes.

bounce lighting – Natural and unnatural light sources (flash and tungsten) redirected toward the subject using a reflective surface to give the effect of natural light as well as fill-in shadows. See also color temperature, fill-in lighting, White Balance adjustment.

bracketing – The process of taking three shots of the same photo based on the aperture and shutter values recommended by the light meter: a shot one stop under the recommended exposure, a shot at the recommended exposure, and a shot one stop over the recommended exposure. You can also narrow the bracketing range to fractions of a stop. Bracketing is used in difficult lighting situations to ensure that the scene is captured with the correct exposure. See also automatic bracketing.

Brightness parameter – An Exposure adjustment parameter in Aperture used to lighten or darken an image. The adjustment affects the brightness values of the image’s midtones the most. See also adjustment, Exposure adjustment, midtones.

Browser – The part of the Aperture interface that displays the contents of the library, folders, projects, or albums. The Browser displays photos as a row of thumbnails (filmstrip view), a grid of thumbnails (grid view), or by file information (list view). See also filmstrip view, grid view, list view, Viewer.

Browser layout – A main window layout in Aperture in which the Viewer is hidden. See also Browser, Full Screen view, Split View layout, Viewer, Viewer layout.

Browser mode (Full Screen view) – A view mode in Full Screen view, similar to the Browser in the Aperture main window. When Full Screen view is set to Browser mode, photos are presented as thumbnails against a black background. Aperture provides controls for searching for and sorting the thumbnails in this mode. See alsoBrowser, Full Screen view, Library Path Navigator pop-up menus, Projects mode (Full Screen view), Viewer mode (Full Screen view).

brushed adjustment – A type of adjustment in Aperture that is brushed on the image rather than applied to it all at once. Most adjustments can be brushed on an image. See also adjustment, brushed adjustment overlay, Quick Brushes.

brushed adjustment overlay – A masking tool in Aperture used to identify brush strokes that have already been applied to an image. See also Brush HUD, Quick Brushes.

Brush HUD – A floating window used to set the size of the brush, the softness of the brush’s edges, and the strength of the brush stroke for the selected adjustment. The Brush HUD also contains controls for deleting brush strokes, working with overlays, limiting the adjustment to specific tonal ranges, and edge detection. See alsobrushed adjustment overlay, Detect Edges, Quick Brushes.

Bulb (B) – A manual shutter speed setting on many cameras used for timed exposures. When the shutter is set to B, the shutter stays open until the photographer presses the shutter release button. See also shutter, shutter speed.

Burn Quick Brush – A type of Quick Brush adjustment that darkens the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Dodge Quick Brush, Quick Brushes.

calibration – The process of creating an accurate color profile for a device. Calibrating a device ensures accurate color translation from device to device. See also device characterization.

camera – A photographic device usually consisting of a lightproof box with a lens at one end and either light-sensitive film or a digital image sensor at the other. See also digital point-and-shoot camera, digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera.

camera shake – Blurring of the image caused by the combination of a slow shutter speed, a small aperture, and a long focal length. See also aperture, shutter speed, tripod, unipod.

candid shot – Refers to a photograph of a person that appears to have been taken informally and unposed, without the subject’s knowledge. See also composition.

capture – a. The process of taking the image received by the digital image sensor and camera processor and storing that information on the memory card in the camera. b. The process of recording a photo in Aperture at the moment it is shot via a tethered camera. See also camera, digital image sensor, image, memory card, tethered shooting.

center-weighted metering – A type of metering that measures the light in the entire viewfinder but gives extra emphasis to the center of the frame. Center-weighted metering is the most common type of metering in consumer cameras. See also evaluative metering, light meter, spot metering.

charge-coupled device (CCD) – A type of digital image sensor that records the pixel information row by row. See also complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), digital image sensor.

Chromatic Aberration adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture that corrects chromatic aberration, produced by certain lenses when the photo was shot. Some lenses refract light at specific focal lengths, resulting in a rainbow effect in the image. See also adjustment, image, light.

chromatic spread – The extent of colors affected by the Hue, Saturation, and Luminance parameters in the Color adjustment. See also adjustment, Color adjustment.

Clone brush – A type of Retouch brush in Aperture used to correct and obscure imperfections in an image by copying pixels from a similar-looking area of an image and pasting them over the area with the pixels you want to replace. See also image, pixel, Repair brush, Retouch adjustment, retouching.

close-up – A photo in which the subject usually appears within 3 feet of the camera. For example, head shots are often referred to as close-ups. A shot of an ant on a flower’s petal, where the ant fills a majority of the frame, is also a close-up.

CMYK – A working space used for print pieces combining cyan, magenta, and yellow inks in different combinations to create a color that reflects the proper color of light. Black ink (K) is added to the photo last to generate pure black on the page. See also subtractive color, working space.

codec – Short for compressor/decompressor or encode/decode. A software component used to translate video or audio from its analog uncompressed form to the digital compressed form in which it is stored on a computer’s hard disk. Also referred to as a compressor. See also audio file, video file.

Color adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture used to adjust hue, saturation, and luminance on a color-by-color basis, as well as chromatic range. See also adjustment, chromatic spread, hue, luminance, saturation.

color cast – An unnatural tint in an image due to a lack of color balance. Color casts are often caused by artificial light sources such as interior lighting. Color casts in images are commonly removed by adjusting levels, tint, or white balance. See also White Balance adjustment.

color channels – The individual channels into which color information for digital images is divided. Each individual color channel represents one of the three individual primary colors that combine to represent the final image. Each channel has a bit depth; most digital image files have 8 bits per channel, meaning that there are 256 levels of color for each channel. See also bit depth, color depth.

color depth – The possible range of colors that can be used in an image. There are generally three choices with digital images: grayscale, 8-bit, and 16-bit. Higher color depths provide a wider range of colors but require more storage space. See also bit depth, color channels, grayscale.

colorimeter – An instrument capable of measuring the color value of a sample, using color filters. A colorimeter is used to determine if two colors are the same. However, it does not take into account the light under which a sample is measured. Colorimeters are often used to calibrate displays and printers. See also calibration.

colorimetry – The science of measuring color both objectively and perceptively.

color interpolation – The process of calculating additional color values from light captured via the red, green, and blue elements on the digital image sensor.

color label – A type of metadata that can be assigned in Aperture to help organize and filter photos. You can assign one of five color labels to a photo, as well as assign a specific meaning to each type of color label. See alsometadata.

color management system (CMS) – An application that controls and interprets the reproduction of color between devices and imaging software for accuracy. See also ColorSync.

color matching method (CMM) – A software algorithm designed to translate color information from one device profile to another, such as from your display to your printer. ColorSync is a thoroughly integrated CMM used by OS X. See also ColorSync.

Color Monochrome adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture that desaturates the image and applies a color tint of your choosing to the midtones. See also adjustment, desaturate, image, midtones, monochrome, Tint adjustment.

color space – A mathematical model used to describe part of the visible spectrum. Color from one device is mapped from the device-dependent value to a device-independent value in a color space. Once in an independent space, the color can be mapped to another device-dependent space. See also device dependent, device independent.

ColorSync – A color management system that is part of the Mac operating system. In OS X, ColorSync is thoroughly integrated with the entire operating system and is available to all native OS X applications. See also color management system (CMS), color matching method (CMM), ColorSync Utility.

ColorSync Utility – A centralized application for setting preferences, viewing installed profiles, assigning profiles to devices, and repairing profiles that do not conform to the current ICC specification. See also ColorSync,International Color Consortium (ICC), profile.

color temperature – Describes the color quality of light. Color temperature is measured in units called kelvins (K). See also kelvin (K), White Balance adjustment.

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) – An organization established in 1931 to create standards for a series of color spaces representing the visible spectrum of light. See also color space, device dependent, device independent, lab plot.

compare photo – In Aperture, a photo set to remain onscreen while other photos are viewed against it. The compare photo is indicated by a green border. See also image.

complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) – A type of digital image sensor that is capable of recording the entire image provided by the light-sensitive elements in parallel (essentially all at once), resulting in a higher rate of data transfer to the storage device. Tiny colored microlenses are fitted on each light-sensitive element in a CMOS sensor to increase its ability to interpret light. See also charge-coupled device (CCD), digital image sensor.

compositing – A process in which two or more digital images are combined into one. See also effects.

composition – The arrangement of visual elements in a scene.

compression – The process by which digital image files are reduced in size. Lossy compression is the process of reducing digital image file sizes through the removal of redundant or less important image data. Lossless compression reduces file sizes by mathematically consolidating redundant image data without discarding it. See also decompression, LZW compression.

cones – A type of receptor in the eye capable of perceiving color. There are three types of cone cells, each sensitive to a particular frequency range in the visible spectrum. Cone cells are capable of seeing either red, green, or blue colors. See also rods.

contact sheet – Based on a print preset in Aperture, a printed selection of thumbnail-sized photos with or without associated metadata. Contact sheets in Aperture are similar in appearance to contact prints made by exposing negatives or transparencies against photographic paper.

contrast – The difference between the brightness and color values in an image that allows the viewer to distinguish between objects in an image. High-contrast images have a large range of values, from the darkest shadow to the lightest highlight. Low-contrast images have a more narrow range of values, resulting in a “flatter” look. See alsoContrast parameter, Curves adjustment, density, flat.

Contrast parameter – An Enhance adjustment parameter in Aperture used to adjust the contrast in an image. See also adjustment, contrast, Exposure adjustment.

Contrast Quick Brush – A type of Quick Brush adjustment that applies additional contrast to the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, contrast, Quick Brushes.

control bar – The control bar contains buttons and controls you can use to rate and navigate through images, as well as apply keywords to them. See also keywords, rating.

copyright – The legal right to exclusive publication, production, sale, or distribution of a literary, musical, or artistic work. Typically, these rights are in effect for a specific period of time.

crop – The process of printing or distributing only part of the original image. The general purpose of cropping an image is to create a more effective composition. Another reason for cropping an image is to make it fit a particular aspect ratio, such as 4 x 6. See also adjustment, aspect ratio, composition, Crop adjustment, effects.

Crop adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture that trims the image for the purpose of changing the composition or modifying the aspect ratio. The Crop adjustment is used in conjunction with the Crop tool. See also adjustment,aspect ratio, composition, crop.

Curves adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture that selectively remaps the tonal range of the image by applying a curve from input to output. Manipulating the curve modifies the tonal values in the image. See also adjustment,contrast.

decompression – The process of creating a viewable image from a compressed digital image file. See alsocompression.

definition – The clarity of details in an image. See also resolution.

Definition parameter – An Enhance adjustment parameter in Aperture used to adjust the clarity of details in an image. See also Enhance adjustment.

Definition Quick Brush – A type of Quick Brush adjustment that adds clarity and reduces haze without adding too much contrast to the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, definition,Quick Brushes.

demote – In Aperture, the process of moving a photo in a stack away from the pick position. See also Full Screen view toolbar, image, pick, promote, stack.

densitometer – An instrument designed to measure the optical density of photographs. See also device characterization.

density – The ability of an image to reproduce distinct dark colors. An image with high definition in the darker colors is referred to as dense. See also contrast, flat.

depth of field – The area of the photo that appears in focus from the foreground to the background. Depth of field is determined by a combination of the opening of the aperture and the focal length of the lens. See also aperture,background, focal length, foreground.

desaturate – To remove color from an image. Complete desaturation results in a grayscale image. See also Black & White adjustment, grayscale, saturation.

destination profile – The working-space profile that defines the results of a color conversion from a source profile. See also profile.

Detect Edges – A Brush HUD setting in Aperture that examines differences in pixel values to determine possible hard edges and then restricts the brush from affecting pixels beyond those edges, making it easier to paint adjustments into specific areas of the photo. See also Brush HUD.

device characterization – The process of creating a unique, custom profile for a device such as a display or printer. Characterizing a device involves specialized dedicated hardware and software to determine the exact gamut of the device. See also calibration, gamut.

device dependent – Describes color values that are contingent upon the ability of a device to reproduce those colors. For example, some colors produced by displays cannot be reproduced on paper by a printer. The colors produced by the display are outside the gamut of the printer. Therefore, those colors are considered to be device dependent. See also gamut.

device independent – Describes standard color spaces, such as CIE Lab and XYZ, where the interpretation of a color is not dependent on a specific device. See also color space, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE).

Devignette adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture used to correct unwanted vignetting applied to the image at the time it was captured. See also Vignette adjustment, vignetting.

diffused lighting – A type of light that is scattered across the subject or scene. Diffused lighting results in a photo with low contrast and detail, as seen in photos shot outdoors on an overcast day. See also contrast, flat.

digital – A description of data that is stored or transmitted as a sequence of ones and zeros. Most commonly, refers to binary data represented using electronic or electromagnetic signals. JPEG, PNG, RAW, and TIFF files are all digital. See also digitization.

digital image sensor – The computer chip located at the image plane inside the camera that consists of millions of individual light-sensitive elements capable of capturing light. See also camera, charge-coupled device (CCD),complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), megapixel.

digital noise – Misinterpreted pixels occurring as the result of high ISO settings; also known as chrominance signal-to-noise ratio. Random bright pixels, especially in solid colors, are the result of digital noise. See also ISO speed, noise reduction.

digital original file See original.

digital point-and-shoot camera – A lightweight digital camera with a built-in autofocus feature, aptly named for the two steps required of the photographer to shoot a photo. The lens, aperture, and shutter are one assembly that is usually irremovable from the camera. See also camera, digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera.

digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera – An interchangeable-lens camera where the image created by the lens is transmitted via a reflexing mirror through a prism to the viewfinder, and the viewfinder image corresponds to the actual image area. The mirror reflexes, or moves up, so as not to block the digital image sensor when the shutter is open. See also camera, digital point-and-shoot camera.

digitization – The process of converting an analog voltage value to a digital value.

digitize – A term often used by photographers for converting photos captured on film to a digital format, such as TIFF, using a film scanner.

disclosure triangle – A small triangle you click to show or hide details in the Aperture interface.

display – The computer’s monitor.

distort – Performing an adjustment that changes the shape or composition of an image. See also effects.

DNG – A royalty-free RAW image format designed by Adobe Systems Incorporated. See also format, RAW.

Dodge Quick Brush – A type of Quick Brush adjustment that lightens the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Burn Quick Brush, Quick Brushes.

dot gain A printing term used to describe the enlargement of halftone dots as ink is absorbed into paper. Dot gain can affect the quality of an image’s appearance by reducing the amount of white reflected off the paper.

dots per inch (dpi) – A printer resolution measurement that refers to the maximum number of dots within a square inch. See also print, resolution.

drift – Changes in the way a device reproduces color over time. For example, the age of inks and the type of paper can cause a printer’s color output to drift. See also device characterization, gamut.

drop shadow – An effect that creates an artificial shadow behind an image. Typically used on websites and in photo albums to create the illusion of three dimensions.

Duplicate Version command – A command in the Photos menu that duplicates the selected photo version with all applied metadata and adjustments. See also adjustment, image, metadata, version.

dust and scratch removal – The process of digitally removing the blemishes caused by dust and scratches on film scans. See also Retouch adjustment.

dye sublimation – A type of printer that creates images by heating colored ribbon to a gaseous state, bonding the ink to the paper. See also inkjet printer, photo printer, print, RA-4.

Edge Sharpen adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture that sharpens the image based on luminance using multiple sharpening passes. See also adjustment, image, Sharpen adjustment.

editing – The process of arranging and eliminating photos. See also photo edit.

effect preset – A set of saved adjustment parameter settings. You can create new effect presets and rename, rearrange the order of, and delete existing effect presets. Effect presets appear in the Effects pop-up menu in the Adjustments inspector and the Adjustments pane of the Inspector HUD, and you can also access them by choosing Photos > Add Effect. See also adjustment, effects.

effects – A general term used to describe the introduction of unnatural visual elements to enhance an image. See also compositing, effect preset, filters.

electromagnetic radiation – A type of energy ranging from gamma rays to radio waves that also includes visible light. See also light.

embedded profile – The source profile saved in the digital image file. JPEG, TIFF, PNG, and PDF file formats support embedded profiles. See also device characterization, profile.

emulsion – The tiny layers of gelatin, consisting of light-sensitive elements, found in film. When the emulsion is exposed to light, a chemical reaction occurs. After the film is developed, an image appears. See also dust and scratch removal, film.

Enhance adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture that adjusts contrast, definition, saturation, and vibrancy, as well as black, gray, and white tints in an image. See also adjustment, contrast, Contrast parameter, definition,Definition parameter, saturation, Saturation parameter, tint, Tint adjustment, Vibrancy parameter.

evaluative metering – A type of metering that operates by dividing the frame into several small segments, taking a reading from each individual segment, and processing the average of the total segments to recommend the best exposure value for the overall photo. See also center-weighted metering, light meter, spot metering.

EXIF – Short for Exchangeable Image File. The standard format for storing information—such as shutter speed, aperture, white balance, exposure compensation, metering setting, ISO setting, date, and time—about how a photo was shot. See also IPTC, metadata.

export – The process of formatting data in such a way that it can be understood by other applications. In Aperture, photos can be exported in their native RAW format, as well as in JPEG, TIFF, PNG, and PSD formats. The EXIF and IPTC metadata associated with a photo can be exported as well.

exposure – The amount of light in a photo. Exposure is controlled by limiting the intensity of light (controlled by the aperture) and the length of time light comes into contact with the digital image sensor (controlled by the shutter). Exposure affects the overall brightness of the photo as well as its perceived contrast. See alsoadjustment, aperture, contrast, digital image sensor, Exposure adjustment, shutter.

Exposure adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture that adjusts exposure, recovery, black point, and brightness. See also adjustment, Black Point parameter, Brightness parameter, exposure, Recovery parameter.

exposure meter – See light meter.

extended desktop mode – A setting in System Preferences that allows the OS X desktop to span multiple displays. See also display, mirroring.

external editor – An application used in tandem with Aperture to perform advanced adjustments, such as compositing. Aperture creates a new original when an image is sent to an external editor and automatically retrieves the original when the image is saved. See also compositing, original.

external flash – A type of flash connected to the camera via the hot-shoe bracket or PC terminal. Using an external flash is the best technique for avoiding the red-eye effect in your subject’s eyes. See also flash, red-eye.

face detection – The process Aperture uses to determine if a face appears in a photo. See also Faces view.

face recognition – The process Aperture uses to keep track of faces you have identified in your photos and suggest other possible matching faces in the same Aperture library. See also Faces view.

Faces view – An Aperture view that displays snapshots of people in photos in the library or in an item selected in the Library inspector that have been assigned names. See also face detection, face recognition, Flagged view,Photos view, Places view, Projects view, skimming.

fill-in lighting – The use of an artificial light source, such as daylight lamps or flash, to soften a subject or fill in shadows. See also bounce lighting, color temperature, White Balance adjustment.

film – A flexible transparent base coated with a light-sensitive emulsion capable of recording photos. See also dust and scratch removal, emulsion.

filmstrip – An interface element in Full Screen view that allows you to scroll through and search for photos. See alsoFull Screen view.

filmstrip view – A Browser view that allows you to quickly scroll through thumbnail images horizontally. See alsoBrowser.

Filter HUD – A floating window used to quickly locate photos in the Browser based on a combination of criteria, such as adjustments, keywords, ratings, and EXIF metadata. See also EXIF, image, keywords, rating.

filters – a. Modifiable search criteria used in the Filter HUD to return a specific selection of photos. b. Effects applied in Photoshop that affect the visual quality of the image to which they’re applied. c. A colored piece of glass or plastic designed to be placed in front of a camera lens to change, emphasize, or eliminate density, reflections, or areas within the scene. See also compositing, density, effects.

Finder – The part of the Mac operating system software that keeps track of files, applications, and folders and displays the desktop.

finishing – The process of applying the final adjustments to a digital image just before presentation. Finishing may involve applying an additional gamma adjustment upon export, or using an external editor to either burn or dodge a portion of the image before sending it to the printer. See also export, external editor.

FireWire – The trademarked Apple name for the IEEE 1394 standard, a fast and versatile interface used to connect external devices to computers. FireWire is well suited to transferring large amounts of data, and FireWire devices such as hard drives are often used to provide additional storage space. Aperture vaults are commonly stored on external FireWire hard drives. See also tethered shooting, USB, vault.

fixed lens – See prime lens.

flag – A type of metadata assigned in Aperture used to help filter photos. You can flag photos and then search for and display photos in Aperture based on whether they are flagged or not. See also Flagged view, metadata.

Flagged view – An Aperture view that displays all photos, audio clips, and video clips in the library that have been flagged. See also Faces view, flag, Photos view, Places view, Projects view.

flash – A device either on or attached to the camera that emits a brief, intense burst of light when the shutter release button is pressed. Flashes, synchronized with the shutter, are used to obtain a correctly exposed photo in low-light situations. See also exposure, external flash, fill-in lighting, hot shoe.

flat – The lack of density in a photo when the contrast is too low. See also contrast, density.

Flip adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture that inverts the composition of the image horizontally, vertically, or both. See also adjustment.

focal length – The distance from the rear nodal point of the lens to the point where the light rays passing through the lens are focused onto the image plane—the digital image sensor. Focal lengths are measured in millimeters (mm).

focus point overlays – See autofocus point overlays.

folder – A type of container in the Aperture library used to organize projects and albums within projects. Folders do not contain photos, video clips, or audio clips. See also album, library, project.

foreground – The area of the image between the subject and the camera. See also background, depth of field.

format – a. File format: A specific method of encoding information. Most well-known file formats, such as TIFF and PNG, have published specifications. b. Disk formatting: The preparation of a hard disk or other storage medium for use with a file system. See also JPEG, PNG, PSD, TIFF, vault.

frame – The border of an image. Frame can also be used as a verb to describe the process of constructing a composition within a specific image area. See also crop.

frontlighting – A light source, emanating from the direction of the camera, that faces toward the subject. See alsobacklighting, sidelighting.

f-stop – The ratio of the focal length of the lens to the diameter of the opening of the aperture. See also aperture.

Full Screen view – A workspace view in Aperture with minimal user interface, used to view full-screen photos in high resolution with the least amount of light and color interference. See also Browser layout, filmstrip, HUD, Split View layout, Viewer layout.

Full Screen view toolbar – A collection of buttons and tools, grouped by function, located at the top of the screen in Full Screen view. See also toolbar.

gamma – A curve that describes how the middle tones of an image appear. Gamma is a nonlinear function often confused with brightness or contrast. Changing the value of the gamma affects middle tones while leaving the whites and blacks of the image unaltered. Gamma adjustment is often used to compensate for differences between Mac and Windows video cards and displays. The Mac Standard gamma is 1.8; the PC Standard is 2.2.

gamut – The range of colors an individual color device is capable of reproducing. Each device capable of reproducing color has a unique gamut determined by age, frequency of use, and other elements such as inks and paper. See also device characterization, device dependent, gamut mapping, ICC profile.

gamut mapping – The process of identifying colors outside a device’s gamut and then calculating the nearest color within its gamut. Gamut mapping is used when receiving color information from another color space. See alsocolor space, gamut.

Global Positioning System (GPS) – A U.S. space-based navigation system that provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services for civilian users on a continuous, worldwide basis. Aperture uses photo location information provided by GPS-enabled cameras to plot where each image was shot on a map in Places view. See also GPS track log, Places view.

GPS track log – A file consisting of digital bread crumbs that are used to define a path or route (“track”) using precise coordinates saved by a GPS device or GPS tracking iOS application. If you have a GPS-enabled camera or iOS device or another GPS device that you use to create track files and save waypoints, you can import the track files into Aperture and work with them in Places view. See also Global Positioning System (GPS), Places view,waypoint.

grayscale – Describes an image whose only colors are shades of gray. Usually grayscale images have smaller file sizes because less information is required to display a gray pixel, in which the red, green, and blue pixel elements all emit an equal intensity. See also Black & White adjustment, monochrome, pixel.

grid view – A Browser view that displays photos as a grid of thumbnails. Grid view is the Browser’s default view. See also Browser, filmstrip view, list view.

Halo Reduction Quick Brush – A type of Quick Brush adjustment used to remove the blue and purple fringes that are occasionally produced with certain lenses when the image is overexposed. See also adjustment, Brush HUD,Quick Brushes.

high-definition video – Generally refers to video that is 720 progressive scan lines or better, also known as HD video.

highlights – The brightest areas of the subject or scene. See also contrast, density, shadows.

Highlights & Shadows adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture used to selectively adjust the highlights and shadows in an image. See also adjustment, highlights, shadows.

hot shoe – An apparatus at the top of a camera designed to hold a portable flash. When the shutter release button is pressed, an electric signal is transmitted through a connection in the hot shoe to activate the portable flash. See also external flash, flash.

HUD – Short for heads-up display. In Aperture, HUDs are floating windows that allow you to work on your image. You can open and then move a HUD wherever you wish, based on your display setup. See also Full Screen view.

hue – An attribute of color perception; also known as color phase. For example, red and blue are different hues. See also Color adjustment.

ICC profile – Created as a result of device characterization, the ICC profile contains the data about the device’s exact gamut. See also device characterization, gamut, International Color Consortium (ICC).

image – An artifact that reproduces the likeness of some subject, usually a physical object or person, also known as a picture. See also photograph, photo selection, picture, subject.

importing – The process of bringing digital image files, audio files, and video files of various types into a project in Aperture. Imported files can be created in another application, downloaded from a camera or card reader, or brought in from another Aperture project. See also project.

inkjet printer – A type of printer that creates images by spraying little ink droplets onto the paper. See also dye sublimation, photo printer, print, RA-4.

Inspector HUD – A floating window that contains the Library, Metadata, and Adjustments panes. See also Inspector pane.

Inspector pane – An element of the Aperture main window that contains the Library, Info, and Adjustments inspectors. See also Inspector HUD.

Intensify Contrast Quick Brush – A type of Quick Brush adjustment that corrects the shadow areas of the image that appear washed out by intensifying the contrast between pure black and 50 percent gray in the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. The Intensify Contrast Quick Brush adjustment is equivalent to applying an Overlay blend. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, contrast, Polarize Quick Brush, Quick Brushes, shadows.

International Color Consortium (ICC) – An organization established to create the color management standard known as the ICC profile. ICC profiles are universally accepted by hardware and software vendors because they’re based on an open standard. See also ICC profile.

IPTC – Short for International Press Telecommunications Council. IPTC metadata is used by photographers and media organizations to embed keywords (words describing the characteristics of the image, including the photographer’s name) in the image files themselves. Large publishers typically use image management systems to quickly identify photos based on the IPTC information embedded in the image file. See also EXIF, metadata.

IPTC Core – A defined set of metadata fields, primarily used by photographers and news media, built on Adobe’s XMP technology. See also IPTC, metadata, XMP sidecar file.

iris – See pupil.

ISO speed – The relative sensitivity of film provided as a benchmark by the International Standards Organization (ISO). In digital cameras, the minimum ISO rating is defined by the sensitivity of the digital image sensor. When the ISO setting on the camera is increased, allowing the photographer to shoot in low-light situations, the camera amplifies the voltage received from the light-sensitive elements on the digital image sensor prior to converting the voltage signals to digital values. See also digital image sensor, digital noise.

JPEG – Short for Joint Photographic Experts Group, JPEG is a popular image file format that lets you create highly compressed graphics files. The amount of compression used varies. Less compression results in a higher-quality image. JPEG files usually have a .jpg extension. See also format, RAW + JPEG image pair.

kelvin (K) – A unit of measurement used to describe color values of light sources, based on a temperature scale that begins at absolute zero. See also color temperature, White Balance adjustment.

keywords – Descriptive words about the subject in the photo that are added to photo versions and saved as metadata. See also control bar, Keywords HUD, metadata, version.

Keywords HUD – A floating window containing a library of keywords that can be applied to a photo selection. See also keywords, metadata, photo selection.

lab plot – A visual three-dimensional representation of the CIE Lab color space. See also color space, ColorSync.

lens – A series of sophisticated elements—usually glass—constructed to refract and focus the reflective light from a scene at a specific point: the digital image sensor in a camera. See also camera, digital image sensor, macro lens,prime lens, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, zoom lens.

Levels adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture that provides controls to selectively adjust the tonal range of an image. See also adjustment, image.

library – In Aperture, a container file that holds projects, folders, albums, originals, and versions. You organize items in the library, rename items, sort items, and so on using the Library inspector. By default, the Aperture Library file is located in your Pictures folder. See also album, folder, merging libraries, original, project, version.

Library Path Navigator pop-up menus – A set of pop-up menus at the top-left corner of the screen in the Full Screen view Browser mode that are used to provide access to all the items in the Library inspector. See alsoBrowser mode (Full Screen view), Full Screen view, library.

Lift & Stamp HUD – A floating window that displays the attributes lifted from a photo. You can choose which attributes are stamped on a photo selection by deselecting the attributes you don’t want to apply. See also HUD,Lift and Stamp tools, photo selection.

Lift and Stamp tools – A pair of tools used in conjunction with the Lift & Stamp HUD to copy (lift) attributes, such as metadata and adjustments, from one photo and paste (stamp) them on a photo selection. See also adjustment,Lift & Stamp HUD, metadata, photo selection.

light – Visible energy in the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths ranging between 400 and 720 nanometers. See also electromagnetic radiation.

light meter – A device capable of measuring the intensity of reflective light. Light meters are used as an aid for selecting the correct exposure settings on the camera. Most cameras have internal light meters. See also center-weighted metering, evaluative metering, meter, spot metering.

Light Table – An area in the Aperture main window that appears when you select a Light Table album. The Light Table provides a large open space where you can place a selection of photos for review and drag them to new positions, group them in different combinations, and resize them as needed. See also album, Navigator button.

list view – A Browser view that displays photos in a list by name, icon, and accompanying metadata, such as rating, image dimensions, file size, and date, rather than as a row or grid of thumbnails. See also Browser, filmstrip view,grid view, metadata, rating.

Loupe – A tool in Aperture used to magnify the area of the photo you place it over.

luminance – A value describing the brightness of all color channels combined in a pixel.

LZW compression – A lossless data-compression algorithm developed by Abraham Lempel, Jakob Ziv, and Terry Welch in 1984. LZW compression algorithms are typically used with JPEG and TIFF graphics files to reduce the file size for archiving and transmission at a ratio of 2.8:1. See also compression, JPEG, TIFF.

macro lens – A type of lens used for extreme close-up photography. See also camera, lens, prime lens, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, zoom lens.

main Viewer – For systems with multiple displays, the main Viewer is used for displaying the Aperture application. See also display, secondary Viewer.

managed images – Images whose originals are stored in the Aperture library. The locations of the originals are managed by the Aperture database. Managed image files are always online. See also library, offline, online,original, referenced images.

megapixel – One million pixels. For example, 1,500,000 pixels equals 1.5 megapixels. See also digital image sensor, pixel.

memory card – The device in the camera where digital image files are stored. See also camera, capture.

merging libraries – The process of importing an Aperture library file and merging its contents into the library that is currently open in Aperture. See also library.

metadata – Data about data; metadata describes how data was collected and formatted. Databases use metadata to track specific forms of data. Aperture supports both EXIF and IPTC metadata. See also EXIF, IPTC.

meter – The process of using a light meter to calculate the appropriate exposure. See also light meter.

midtones – The color values in an image between the highlights and shadows. See also contrast, highlights,Highlights & Shadows adjustment, Levels adjustment, shadows.

mirroring – The process of showing the same photo on two or more displays. See also extended desktop mode.

Mirror setting – A secondary Viewer setting that sets Aperture to present the same photo selection on the main and secondary Viewer displays. See also display, mirroring, main Viewer, photo selection, secondary Viewer.

moire pattern – Refers to the type of visual pattern that is created by the interference of two grids overlaid on top of one another. Moire patterns can occur in photos taken with digital cameras when the linear pattern in the photo interferes with the linear pattern of the digital image sensor pixel array. The moire pattern often results from a weak anti-aliasing filter employed by the camera’s image processor. See also digital image sensor, RAW Fine Tuning adjustment.

monitor – See display.

monochrome – An image presented in shades of a single color, such as the shades of gray in a black-and-white photograph. See also Black & White adjustment, Color Monochrome adjustment, grayscale, image, photograph.

Navigator button – A button in the Light Table used to reposition the view when the contents of the Light Table are larger than your screen. See also Light Table.

negative – Developed film with a reverse-tone image of the subject or scene. See also dust and scratch removal,emulsion, film, positive.

New Version From Original command – A command in the Photos menu that creates a new version from the original corresponding to a selected photo, audio clip, or video clip. See also original, version.

noise – See digital noise.

noise reduction – The process of removing digital noise in a photo. See also adjustment, digital noise, image, Noise Reduction adjustment, Noise Reduction Quick Brush.

Noise Reduction adjustment – An adjustment in Aperture that reduces digital noise in an image. See alsoadjustment, digital noise, image, noise reduction.

Noise Reduction Quick Brush – A type of Quick Brush adjustment that removes digital noise in the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, digital noise, noise reduction, Quick Brushes.

N-up printing – The process of consolidating a multiple-page document on a single sheet of paper. See also print.

offline – Describes photos whose originals are currently unavailable to Aperture. Offline photos appear in the Viewer and Browser with badge overlays displaying a red slash through them. Photos may be offline because the device containing the originals, such as a CD, DVD, FireWire drive, or server, is not connected to your computer or the original filenames have been modified in some way. To bring the photos online, you must reconnect them to their corresponding originals. See also Browser, FireWire, online, original, preview images, Viewer.

offset press – A type of professional printer used for high-volume printing for items such as magazines and brochures. Offset printing presses deposit ink in lines of halftone dots to produce images on the page. See alsophoto printer.

Off setting – A secondary Viewer setting that turns off the dual-display function. See also display, secondary Viewer.

online – Describes photos whose originals are currently available to Aperture. See also offline.

opacity – The level of an image’s transparency.

optical zoom lens – See zoom lens.

original – The source media file that was copied from either your computer’s file system or your camera’s memory card. In Aperture, the original is never modified. Whenever a change is made to a photo, a video clip, or an audio clip, that change is applied to the version. Formerly known as the master. See also memory card, project, version.

overexposure – The result of exposing a scene too long. Overexposed scenes appear too bright and lack adequate details in the shadows. See also exposure, underexposed.

panning – a. Moving the camera along with a moving subject in order to keep the subject in the frame. Panning a fast-moving subject with a slow shutter speed usually causes the subject to remain relatively in focus, while the remaining areas of the scene are blurred or stretched in the direction of the camera movement. b. In Aperture, pressing the Space bar and dragging within an image to see other parts of the image when it is displayed at 100 percent size. See also camera, image, Viewer.

panorama – Usually refers to a scenic landscape photo with a wide aspect ratio. Photographers often digitally combine, or “stitch,” multiple photos of the same scene to create a continuous panoramic photo. See also aspect ratio.

perceptual – A type of render intent that compresses the total gamut from one device’s color space into the gamut of another device’s color space when one or more colors in the original image are out of the gamut of the destination color space. This preserves the visual relationship between colors by shrinking the entire color space and shifting all colors. However, colors that were in gamut also shift. See also gamut, relative colorimetric,rendering intent.

phase – An attribute of color perception; also known as hue. See also hue.

photo edit – The process of choosing selects from a group of photos, as well as rejecting photos that you don’t plan to use or publish. The more aggressively you cull undesirable photos from your working group of photos, the more time you save when you process the photos for display. See also rating, Reject rating, Select rating.

photograph – An image created using a camera as a result of light interacting with a light-sensitive surface, usually film or a digital image sensor. See also camera, digital image sensor, film, image, picture.

photo printer – A type of printer capable of producing photo-quality images. See also dye sublimation, gamut,inkjet printer, offset press, print, RA-4.

photo selection – Refers to a photo or group of photos selected in the Browser or the Full Screen view filmstrip. A white rectangle surrounding a photo indicates it is selected. See also Browser, Full Screen view, photograph.

Photo Stream – An iCloud service that uploads and stores the last 30 days of your photos and automatically pushes them to all your iOS devices and computers. Also a view in Aperture that displays all the photos that have been uploaded to Photo Stream from your iOS 5 devices and the Aperture library. See also Faces view, Flagged view,Photos view, Places view, Projects view.

Photos view – An Aperture view that displays all the photos, audio clips, and video clips in the library. See alsoFaces view, Flagged view, Photo Stream, Places view, Projects view.

pick – The photo that represents a stack. The pick is usually the best photo in the stack. See also alternate, stack.

picture – A visual representation rendered on a flat surface or screen, such as a photograph. See also image,photograph.

Pictures folder – Located in the Home folder, the Pictures folder is the default location for Aperture and iPhoto libraries. See also library.

pixel – The smallest discernible visual element of a digital image. See also megapixel.

Places Path Navigator pop-up menus – A set of pop-up menus located at the top-left corner of the screen in Places view that are used to navigate to locations on the map. See also Places view.

Places view – A view in Aperture that allows you to apply location information to a photo selection and track the location of each shot using Google Maps. Photos captured with GPS-enabled cameras provide their location information automatically. See also Faces view, Flagged view, Global Positioning System (GPS), photo selection,Photos view, Places Path Navigator pop-up menus, Projects view, waypoint.

PNG – Short for Portable Network Graphics. PNG is a bitmapped graphics file format that has been approved by the World Wide Web Consortium to replace patented GIF files. PNG files are patent and royalty free. See also format.

Polarize Quick Brush – A type of Quick Brush adjustment that deepens the colors in the image by darkening the shadows and midtones while preserving the highlights in the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. The Polarize Quick Brush adjustment is equivalent to applying a Multiply blend. See also adjustment, Brush HUD,contrast, highlights, Intensify Contrast Quick Brush, midtones, Quick Brushes, shadows.

polarizing filter – A filter placed on the front of the camera lens that selectively transmits light traveling on one plane while absorbing light traveling on other planes. Polarizing filters are capable of reducing unwanted reflections on windows and shiny surfaces. Polarizing filters are also used to darken the sky. See also filters.

positive – Developed film, where the tonal relationship of the subject or scene is the same on film as when viewed by the eye; also known as a slide. See also dust and scratch removal, emulsion, negative.

presets – A saved group of settings, such as export, naming, print, and web export settings. Presets determine properties such as file format, file compression, filename construction, paper size, and ColorSync profile. Presets are usually defined for particular workflows and can be tailored to client specifications. See also ColorSync.


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