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[[A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II]]

'''A glossary of the Punjab Tribes and Castes'''


AbazaIj a section of tho Yusufzai Pathans, found in Buner.

Abba Khel, one of the six septs of the Baizai clan of tho Akozai Yusufzai

Pa^hd,Q8, found in Peshdwar.

Abbassi, the name of the ruling family of the Daudpotrds who are

Nawabs of Bahawalpur and claim descent from tho Abbasside dynasty

of i^gypt : see Daudpotra and Kalhor^.

Abual, a small caste of Muhamraadans found in Kdngra and the

Jaswiin Dun of Hoshiarpur. The Abddls arc divided into 12 tolls

or septs. The Abduls of Kangra do not associate with those of

Sukhdr and Nurpur. The Abddls are beggars and wanderino-

singers, performing especially at Rdjput funerals, at which they

precede the body singing and playing dirges, len or hirldp. In

the time of the Raj^s when any Rdjput was killed in battle and

the news reached his home, they got his clothes and used to

wear them while singing his dirge. Thus they sang dirges f»r

Rdm Singh, wazir of Nurpur, and Sham Singh, Atd,riwdld,, who had

fought against the British, and for Rajd, Rai Singh of Chamba.

The Abdals now sing various songs and attend Rajput weddings.

They are endogamous. Abddl means 'lieutenant* (see Platts'

Hind, Dicty,, s. v.) and is the name of a class of wandering

Muhammadan saints.* Whether there is any connection between

the name and the Chihil Abddl of Islamic mythology does not

appear. For the Abdals in Bengal see Risley, People of India,

pp. 76 and 119.

Abdal, an Arain clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery.

Abdali, (1) a term once applied generally to all Afghans {q. v.), but

now apparently obsolete : (2) the name of a famous family of tho

Saddozai Pa^hdns which gave Afghanistan its first Afghan dynasty:

Now known as Durrani, this family belonged to the Sarbani branch

of the Afghans, and is believed by them to derive its name from Abddl

or Avddl bin Tarin bin Sharkhabun h. Sarban 6. Qais, who received

this name from Kwhdja Abd Ahmad, an abddl't or saint of the Chishtid

* It is the plur. of hadal, ' substitute,' and the Abdal, 40 in number, take the fifth place

in the Sufi hierarchical order of saints issuing from the great Qutb, Also called 'Rukabi,'

* guardians,' they reside in Syria, bring rain and victory and avert calamity ; Eticyclopxdia

o/ Isldm, s. V, p. 69.

t See Abdal supra.

2 Ahddli — Adam Ehel,

order. Driven from their lands near Qandaliar by the Ghalzai, the

Abdi'ili had long been settled near llerdt, but were restored by Niidir

Shah to their old homo, and when Ahmad Shilh became king at

Qandahiir his tribe served as a nucleus for the new empire. Influenced

by a faqir named Sabar Shah he took the title of Durr-i-durrdn,

' pearl of pearls.' The two principal Abdali clans are the Popalzai,

(to which belonged the royal section, the Sadozai) and the Barakzai :

M. LoDgworth Uames in Encycl. of Islam, p. 67.

Abdalke, a Kharral clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery.

Abduut [avadhuta)* a degree or class of the celibate Gosains who live by

beorging. They are wanderers, as opposed to tho viatddri or dsanddri

class. Sec Gosaia.

Abhiea, the modern Ahfr {q. v.).

Abhai'Anthi, one of the 12 orders or schools of the Jogis (5. v.).

Abkal, a sept of Rdjputs, descended from Wahgal, a son of Sangar Chand,

16th K^ja of Kahlur.

Adlana, (1) a Jat clan (agricultural), found in Multan : (2) a branch of the

Kharrals, found in Montgomery and the Minchin^b^d nizdmat of


Abioia, an ancient tribe of Jat status found in Sindh and the Bahdwalpur

State. It is credited with having introduced the arts of agriculture

into the south-west Punjab and Sindh in the proverb : —

Kar7i hahhshe hiror.

Abra bahhshe hal di or.

' Let R^jfi Karn give away crore of rupees, the Abra will give what

he earns by the plough.'

The tribe is also said to be an offshoot of the Sammas and is

numerous in Bahawalpur.

Abui, a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Multan,

Abwani, a Pathdu clan (agricultural), found in Amritsar.

Acha Khel, an important clan of the Marwat Pathans, found in


AcHi-LAMO (Tibetan), a group of actors, singers and dancers, found

in Kanawar. They wear masks of skin with conch shells for

eyes and a dress to which woollen cords are so attached that in

dancing they spread out. Tho women play a large tambourine, and

the men a small drum shaped like an hour-glass. Parties of five,

— two men, two women and a boy — perform their dance.

Achran, an agricultural clan, found in Shdhpur.

Achakj(a), see under Brahman : syn. Mahabrahman.

Adam Khel, one of the eight principal clans of the Afridi Pathans:

said to be neither Gar nor Samil in politics. They have four

septs— Hassan Khel, Jaw^ki, Galli and Ashu Khel.

» Avadhuta is also the name of a Vaishnava sect. Ramanand founded the Ramawat sect

whom he called Avadhuta, because his followers had ' shaken off ' the bounds of narrow-

mindcdncss. To this sect belonged Tulsi Das, one of whose works was the Vairagya-Sandi-

pani or ' kindling of continence.' {NoUs on Tuhi Dds, by Dr. G. A. Grierson. Indian

Antiquary, 1893, p. 227),

^ / -^ / ^-/V^

^ ^^A c ^



Adan Shdhi-^Ahangar. 3

Adan SHAHf, a Sikh sect or, moro correctly, order, founded by Adau

Shdh, a disciple of Kanhyd. Ldl, the founder of the Sewapanthis


Adh-nath, ono of the 12 orders or schools of the Jogis {q. v.),

Admal, a sept of the Gakkhars {q. v.).

A'dpanthj, possibly a title of those Sikhs who adhere to the original

(ddi) faith (or to the ddi-granf;h) : cf. Census Report, 1891, § 88,

but see Adh-ndth.

Advait, a Hindu sect which maintains the unity of the soul with God

after death.

Afghan, pi. Afaghina: syn. Rohilla or Rohela and Pathdn {q. v-). The

earliest historical mention of the Afghans occurs under the year

1024 A. D. (414-15 Hijri) when Mahmud of Ghazni made a raid

into the mountains inhabited by the Afghjinian— after his return

from India to Ghazni — plundered them and carried off much booty.*

Afghan tradition makes Kashighar or Shawdl their earliest scat,

and the term Afghdnistan or land of the Afghans is said to be,

strictly speaking, applicable to the mountainous country between

Qandahdr and the Derajiit, end between Jalaldbad and the

Khaibar valley on the north and SiwI and Dadar on the south,

but it is now generally used to denote the kingdom of Afghanis-

tan. The AfgMns used to be termed Abdalis or Awdalis from

Malik Abdal under whom they first emerged from the Sulaimdn

Range and drove the Kdfirs or infidels out of the Kdbul valley.

(See also s. v. Pathan, Bangash, Dildzdk). By religion the

Afghans are wholly Muhammadan and claim as their peculiar

saint the ' Afghan Qntb,' Khwdjah Qutb-ud-din, Bakhtidr, Kaki

of Ush (near Baghditd) who probably gave his name to the Qutb

Mindr at Delhi.

Agaei, Agri or Agaria "a worker in salt," from dgara, salt-pan. The Agaris

are the salt-makers of Rdjputana and of the east and south-cast Punjab,

and would appear to be a true caste. t In Gurgaon they are said to

claim descent from the Rdjputs of Chittaur. All are Hindus, and

found especially in the Sultdnpur tract on the common borders of Delhi,

Rohtak and Gurgaon, where they make salt by evaporating the brackish

water of the wells. Socially they rank below the Jdts, but above Lohdrs.

A proverb says : " Theafe, thejawdsa, the Agari and the cartman — when

the lightning flashes these give up the ghost," apparently because the rain

which is likely to follow would dissolve their salt. Cf. Nungae.

Aggarwal, a sub-caste of the Banias {q. v.).

Agie, a doubtful synonym of Agari {q, v.).

Agwana, a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Multdn.

Ahangar, a blacksmith.

* For fuller details see the admirable articles by Mr. Longworth Dames on Afghanistan

and Afridi in the Encyclopaedia of Islim (London: Luzac & Co.) now in courso of pub-


t But the Agarfs are also said to be a mere eiib-castc of the Kumhars. In Kumaon dgari

means an " iron-smolter " : N. I. N. Q. I., §§ 214, 217. It is doubtful whether Agi-a derives

its name from the Agaris, as there is an Agi-a in the Peshawar valley. For an account of Uio

salt-industry in Gurgaon, see Qurgaon Qazettecr, 1884, page 57.

4 Ahdri^^Ahir,

A.HARf, a doubtful synonym of Aheri {q. v.).

AHEEf (a), Ileri, Ahiiri (?), an out-caste and often vagrant tribe, found in the

south-east Punjab, and originally immigrant* from Rdjputana, especi-

ally Jodhpur and Bik^ner. The name is said to be derived from

her, a herd of cattle, but the Ahori, who appears to be usually

called Heri in the Punjab, is by heredity a hunter and fowler. He

is however ordinarily a labourer, especially a reaper, and even culti-

vates land in Hiss^r, while in Karnal he makes saltpetre.* In ap-

pearance and physique Aheris resemble Baurias, but they have no

dialect of their own, and are not, as a body, addicted to crime.

Of their numerous gots the following are found in the B^wal

nizdmat of Ndbha : —



























The Aheris are almost all Hindus, but in the Phulki^n States a few

are Sikhs. Besides the other village deities they worship the goddess

Masdnl and specially affect Bd,bd,ji of Kohmand in Jodhpur and

Khetrp^l. In marriage four gots are avoided, and widow re-marriage

is permitted. All their rites resemble those of the Dhdnaks,t and

Chamarw^ Brahmans officiate at their weddings and like occasions.

The N^iks, who form a superior class among the Heris, resemble

them in all respects, having the same gots and following the same

pursuits, but the two groups do oot intermarry or even take water

from each other's hands. On the other hand the Aheri is said to

be dubbed Thori as a term of contempt, and possibly the two tribes

are really the same.

For accounts of the Aheris in the United Provinces, see Elliot's


Ahie. The name Ahir is doubtless derived from the Sanskrit ahhira, a

milkman, but various other folk etymologies are current. J

The Ahirs' own tradition as to their origin is, that a Brahman once

took a Vaisya girl to wife and her offspring were pronounced amat'

sangyd or outcast ; that again a daughter of the amat-sangyds married

a Brahman, and that her offspringr were called ahhirs {i.e., Gop^s or

herdsmen), a word corrupted into Ahir.

They are chiefly found in the south of Dehli, Gurgdon, and Rohtak

and the Phulki^n States bordering upon these districts, and in this

• Ahen's also work in reeds and grass, especially at making winnowing-baskets and

stools of reed.

t The Aheris claim that they will not take water from a Dhinak, as the Chuhras do.

Yet they rank no higher than the latter, since they eat dead animals, although they will

cot remove filth.

X One of these is ahi-dr, " snake-killer," due to the fact that Sri Krishna had once killed

a snake. But according to the Mad-Bhagwat, Askaad 10, Addhiyae 17, Sri Krishna did'^oa

kill the snake, but brought it out of the Jumna.

(^ /'


z S'^ /« ■ - -^

"^ .W^ fi.2-^.«,i^ "^u^Zt^^





Ahir growps.

limited tract they form a coDsiderable proportion of the whole popula-


The first historical mention of the Abhiras occurs in the confused

statements of the Vishnu Parana concerning them and the Sakas

Yavanas, Bahlikas and other outlandish dynasties which succeeded

the Andhras in the 3rd century A. D.

In the 4th century the Abhfrap, Arjundyanas and Malavas are de-

scribed as republican tribes settled in eastern Rdjpnt^na and Malwa.*

They are divided into three hhdwps or sub-castes : —

(1) the Nandbansi, who call themselves the offspring of Nandil, the

foster-father of Sri Krishna.t

(2) the Jdduhansiy who claim to be descendants of the Yadu, a

nomadic race.

(3) the Gudlhanai, who say that they are descended from the Gu51d

or ' herdsman ' dynasty and the Gopis, who danced with the

god Krishna in the woods of Bindraban and Gokal.

The Jadubansi Ahirs are mostly found in the Ahirwati J and Haridna,

while the Nandbansis and Gudlbansis are found in Mathura and


All three sub-castes are endogamous and avoid four gots in marriage.

The gots of the

1 . Abhiryd,.

2. Bachhvvalyd,,

3. Balwnn.

4. Bhankary^,

5. Bhogwarjii.

6. Bhunkaldn.

7. Bhusaryd,.

8. BhusU.

9. Chatasya.

10. Chura.

11. Dabar.

12. Dahiyd.

1 3. Datarli.

14. Dholiwdl.

15. Dhundald.

16. Dumdolyd.

17. Harbald.

18. Jadam.

19. Jdnjaryd.

20. Jarwal.

Jddubansis are: —

21. Jharudhyd.

22. Kakralya.

23. Kakudhya.

24. Kalalyd.

25. Kalg-dn.

26. Kdnkas.

27. Karera.

28. Khdlod.

29. Kharotya.

30. Kharpara.

31. Khatodhya from

Khatode inPatidla.

32. Khiswa.

33. KhoM.

34. Khorryd.

35. KhosL

36. Khurmya.

37. Kinwal.

33. Kosalyd from Kosli

in Rohtak.

39. Lanba.

40. Lodiyd.

41. Mahla.

42. Mandhdr.

43. Mitha.

44. Mohal.

45. Nagarya.

46. Narbdn.

47. Notiwdl.

48. Pacharya.

49. Sanp.

50. Sonaryii.

51. Sultdnya.

52. Thokardn.

53. Tohrmijl.

54. Tundak.

55. Solangia, original-

ly Solanki Rdjputs.

* V. A. Smith, Ancient History of India, pp. 240 and 250,

t Sri Krishna, through fear of Raja, Kans, was changed for Nand's daughter and so

brought up by him. Nand was an Ahir ; Krishna, a Kshatrya. J4du was the son of Jaeat

from whom Krishna was descended, and the Jadubansi also claim descent from him '

t Another account says that the Ahirwati is held by the Jadubansi and Nandbansf

who smoke together, whereas the Gualbansi will not smoke u-ith them (in spite of the

latters' inferiority).

It is not easy to define the boundaries of Ahirwati. It includes Rewari and the country

to the west of it ; R4th or Bighauta lying to the south-west of that town and apparently

overlapping it since Narnaul appears to lie in the Riiix as well as in the Ahirwatf.

Ahir origins.

56. Bhanotra, originally Nathawat Rajputs, from' Amla Bhanera

in Jaipur: their ancestor committed murder and fled, finding a refuge

with the Ahirs : and

57. Ddyar, originally Tun war Rajputs till 995 Sambat : the legend

is that Anangpal had given his daughter in marriage to Kalu R^ja of

Dhiirc4nao-ar, but her husband gave her vessels for her separate use, and

she complained to her father. Anangpal would have attacked his

son-in-law but his nobles dissuaded him, and so he treacherously invited

Kdlu to his second daughter's wedding. Kdlu came with his four

brothers, Parmar, Nil, Bhawan and Jagpdl, but they learnt of the plot

and fled to the Ahirs, from whom Kdlu took a bride and thus founded

the Ddyar got.

Some of the Nandbansi gots are : —

1. Bachhwdl.

2. Harbanwal.

3. Kaholi.

4. Khatban.

5. Pachary^.

6. Rabar.

7. Sanwary^.

The Ahirs again give their name to the Ahirwati dialect, which is

spoken in the tract round Ndrnaul, Kanaudh and Rew^ri. It differs

little, if at all, from the ordinary Hindi of the south-east Punjab ; * for

a full account of it and its local varieties the reader must be referred to

the Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. IX, pp. 49 — 51 and 233 — 241.

The Ahirs are all Hindus, but in spite of their traditional connec-

tion with Sri Krishna,t they affect Shivaji, Devi and Thdkarji. They

also worship Bandeo, whose shrine is at Raipur in the Bawal nizamat

of Ndbha and who is said to be a black snake : hence no Ahir will kill

a black snake. In Saharanpur their marriage deities are Braha and

Bar deotas, but no traces of these cults are noted in the Punjab. |

Ahir women dress differently to those of the Jdt tribes, wearing

red and yellow striped gowns, with a shawl of red muslin. But in

Jind they are said to wear a gown {lenghd) of blue cloth.

The Ahirs were probably by origin a pastoral caste, but in the

.Punjab they are now almost exclusively agricultural, and stand in

quite the first rank as husbandmen, being as good as the Kamboh

and somewhat superior to the Jat. They are of the same social

standing as the Jd,t and Gujar, who will eat and smoke with them ;

but they have not been, at any rate within recent times, the dominant

race in any considerable tract. Perhaps their nearest approach to

such a position was in the State of Rampur near Rewdri, whose last

chief, Rao Tula Rd-m, mutinied in 1857 and lost his state. His family

still holds a jdgir and its members are addressed as Rao, a title which

is indeed grateful to every Ahir.

They are industrious, patient, and orderly ; and though they

are ill spoken of in the proverbs of the country side, yet that is prob-

ably only because the Jdt is jealous of them as being even better

cultivators than himself. Thus they say ii). Rohtak : " Kosli (the head

* C. R. 1891, p. 263.

t Still, according to Mr. Maclagan, Krishna is their patron, C. R. 1891, p. 120. Moreover,

they adopt Brahman or Bairagi gnrus, receiving from them a kanthi (necklace) and the

Krishna-mantra in return for a hket or pujd of Rs. 2 or 3.

i N. I, N. Q. IV § 460.


Ahir-^Ahidwat. f

village of the Ahirs) has fifty brick houses and Bovoral thousand

swaggerers." So in Delhi : " Rather be kicked by a Rajput or stumble

uphill, than hope anything from a jackal, spear grass, or an Ahir" ;

and again: "All castus are God's creatures, but three castes are

ruthless, when they get a chance they have no shame : the whore,

the Bdnya, and the Ahir." The phrase Ahir be-plr refers to their sup-

posed faithlessness. But these stigmas arc, now-a-days at least, wholly


Their birth, death and marriage ceremonies are like those of tho

Mdlis, Gujars and Jatg. Kareiva is permissible, but in Jind, it is said,

a widow may not marry her husband's elder brother and this is also

the case in Gurg^n, where some of the higher Ahir families disallow

widow re-marriage in toto* and hold aloof from other Ahirs. Like

the Rdjputs the Ahirs recognise concubinage, and a father has a right

to the guardianship of a concubine's son [b-uretiocil) , bat ho does not

inherit. The Ahirs who disallow widow re-marriage also follow the

rule of ch{indavand,f

They eat kachchi and pahht with all Brahmans and Vaisyas, but the

latter do not oat hachchi from them. They will eat kachchi with Raj-

puts, Jats, Hindu Gujars, Rors, Sunars and Tarkhans, while the latter

eat also with tho former. They do not eat flesh. {

In and around Delhi city the Ahir is also known as Ghosi and

claims descent from Nandji, adopted father of Krishna (Kanliyaii).

Anciently called Gwdlds the Ahirs were called Ghosi after their conver-

sion to Isk'im§, but any cowman or milkseller ia also called ghosi.

The principal Ahir or Ghosi gots are :—

Mukhiall which ranks highest of all the gots.

Charia (graziers).

Ghur-charha (cavalry men) and Kasab.

Tho Hindu Ghosi customs resemble those of tho Hindu Rtljputg. A

Gaur Brahman officiates at the fhera rite in marriage. The Ghosi

have a system of imnches and hereditary chaudhris. If ono of the

latter's line fail, his widow may adopt a son to succeed him, or, failing

such adoption, the panch elects a fit person.

A very full description of the Ahirs will bo found in Elliott's Races of the North-Wett

Provinces, and also in Shcrring, I, 332 fi.

Ahlawat, a J^t tribe, said to be descended from a Chauhdn Rajput who

came from Sambhar in Jaipur some 30 generations ago. From him

sprang the Ahlawat, Olian, Kirma, JMare, and Jun Jats who do not

intermarry. Tho tribe is found in Rohtak, Delhi, and Karndl, Its

members worship a common ancestor called Sadu Dob.

*P. C. L. II, p. 132.

+ Ibid. p. 137.

t Ihid. p. 138.

§ Tho meaning appears to be that any Muhammadan who became a cowman by trade was

caUed Ghosi, and that this name then became applied to any Ahir or Gwala, so that we now

find the Hindu Ahir as well as liis Miahammadan competitor commonly called Ghosi.

II MuliMa, ' spokesman,' is also a title given to a leading member of the caste, but it doM

not appear to be equivalent to chaudhri.

d', Ahl-i'Eadis'^Ahmadzai.

Ahl-i-Hadi!^, or " Pcoplu of the Tradition," formerly styled WaMbis

from the name of their founder. The Ahl-i-Hadis are Musalman

purists. •* They accept the six books of traditions as collecied by the

Sunnis, but reject the subsequent glosses of the fathers and the voice

of the church, and claim liberty of conscience and the right of private

interpretation. They insist strongly upon the unity of God, which

doctrine they say has been endangered by the reverence paid by the

ordinary Musalmdn to Muhammad, to the Imdms and to saints ; and

forbid the offering of prayer to any prophet, priest or saint, even as a

mediator with the Almighty. They condemn the sepulchral honours

paid to holy men, and illumination of, visits to, and prostration before,

their shrines, and even go so far as to destroy the domes erected over

their remains. They call the rest of the Muhammadana " Mushrik,"

or those who associate another with God, and strenuously proclaim that

Muhammad was a mere mortal man. They disallow the smoking of

tobacco as unlawful, and discountenance the use of rosaries or beads.

Apparently they insist much upon the approaching appearance of the

last Imdm Mahdi preparatory to the dissolution of the world. Politically

their most important and obnoxious opinion is that they are bound

to wage war against all infidels. The orthodox deny them the title of


A full history of the " Ahl-i-Hadis " is beyond the scope of this

article. Its founder, Abdul- Wahhab, was born in Nejd in 1691 A. D.,

and his successors reduced the whole of Nejd and then overran the

Hijaz. In 1809 their piracies compelled the Government of Bombay

to capture their stronghold on the coast of Kirman, and in 1-81 1-1 8 the

Sultan of Turkey beheaded their chief and reduced them to political

insignificance. Their doctrines were introduced into India by Sayyid

Ahmad Shah of Rai Bareli, originally a free-booter who, after a visit

to Arabia, proceeded to the North- West Frontier, and there, in 1826,

proclaimed a jihad, or religious war against the Sikhs. His extra-

ordinary ascendency over the tribes of the Peshdwar Border and hia

four years' struggle, not wholly unsuccessful, with the Durrani s on the

one hand and on the other with the Sikhs, and his ultimate defeat and

death are described in James' Settlement Rejwrt of Peshawar (pp.

43-44) and more fully in Bellew's History of Yiisufzai (pp. 83—102).

Patna is the head-quarters of the sect in India, but it has also colonies

at Polosi on the Indus and at Sittana and Malka in Yusufzai beyond


[For a general history of ' The Wahdbis in India ' see three articles in

Selections from the Calcutta Review^ by E. J. O'Kinealy].

Ahl-i-Hdndd, [i) Indians: lit. * people of the Indians' (Hundd,'pl, of Hindi,

Catafago's Arabic Dicty. 6-. v, Hunud) ; (m) Hindus, as opposed to


AhLuwaLia, one of the Sikh vnials founded by Jassa Singh of Ahld, a

village in Lahore, and now represented by the ruling family of


AtiMADASi, one of the unorganised Baloch tribes found in the lowlands of

Dera Ghdzi Khdn.

AhmadzaI) one of the two main divisions of the Darwesh Khel Wazirs.

Ahmadzai^'AkdU. 9

Ahmadzai, Amazai, one of tho two principal clans of tlioUshtaraua Pa\.bdn8.

AifUJA (I) a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Multan. (2) Alsoa section of

the Dahra Aroras.

Ahulana, one of the two great dharras or factions of the Jiits found in

Rohtak, etc. See Dahiya.

Aibak, a small sept found at Wahind Sarmana near Kahror in Multin

District which, despite its Turkish name, claims to bcloDg to tho

Joiya tribe.

AiNOKE, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery.

AiPANTHf, a follower of tho Aipanth, one of tho Jogi orders. It is found

in Hissar and Mast Nath, founder of tho Bohar monastery in tho llohtak

District, originally belonged to it.

AiTLE, a sept or clan of Kanets found in the Kaljuii imrgand (Palidla

(State territory), Simla Hills.

AjAKi, ajjari, arydii, ayali, ajari/r. ajjar, herd, a goat-herd — in Rdwalpindi,

Jholum, etc. In Jhelum, it is tho name of a sept of turbulent Awuus

found in the village of Bhuchhal Kalan.

Ajddhia-panthi, (t) a Hindu Vaishnava sect, so called because Riim Chandar

lived in Ajudhia (Oudh) ; [ii) a Vaishnava. The latter is probably the

only correct meaning.

Aka Khel, one of the eight principal clans of the Afridis.

Akali. The sect of the Akalis differs essentially from all the other Sikh

orders in being a militant organization, corresponding to the Ndgas

or Gosains among the Hindus. Their foundation is ascribed to (Juru

Govind* himself, and they steadfastly opposed Baoda's attempted

innovations. The term t is sometimes said to be derived from ahdll-

jmrusha 'worshipper of tho Eternal.' But ahdl meaus ' deathless,' i.e.,

' God,' and Akdli is simply

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