Abdul Kalam, Dr A.P.J.: is credited with advancement
of missile technology in India. He was honoured with Bharat Ratna award
on November 26, 1997. He is known as “father of India’s Missile
Technology”. Elected 11th President of India.
Alvares, Luis W.: is an American physicist teaching
at the University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A. He won the Nobel Prize
for Physics in 1968 for an important breakthrough he made in elementary
physics in 1960 when he discovered a new resonance particle—a discovery
that shattered the then prevailing notions as to how matter was built.
Anfinsen, Dr Christian B.: of the U.S.A.’s National
Institute of Health, Bethseda, Maryland was one of the three co-winners
of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1972.
Archimedes: Greek mathematician (born in Sicily) who
lived about 250 B.C. is known for the discovery of the Archimedes’
principle viz., The volume of any insoluble solid can be found by noting
its loss of weight when immersed in water. He is also credited with the
invention of Archimedean Screw, a cylindrical device for raising water.
Arrow, Kenneth, J.: of Harvard University, U.S.A. is
co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Economics, 1972 with Sir John Richard
Hicks of Oxford University. The two men are known for their pioneering
contributions to general economic equilibrium and welfare theories.
Aryabhatta: (A.D. 476-520) after whom India’s first
scientific satellite has been named, was a great Indian astronomer and
mathematician. Among his important contributions are the recognition of
the importance of the mov ement of the earth round the sun,
determination of the physical parameters of various celestial bodies,
such as diameter of the earth and the moon. He laid the foundations of
algebra and was responsible for pointing out importance of “zero”.
Avogadro, Amedeo: (1776-1856) Italian physicist;
founder of Avogadro’s hypothesis: “Equal volumes of all gases under
similar conditions of temperature and pressure, contain equal number of
molecules.” He also defined a molecule.
Bardeen, Prof John: of the University of Illinois
(U.S.A.) is co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, 1972 (with Prof
Leon N. Cooper and Prof John Robert Schrieffer) for researches into the
“theory of super-conductivity” usually called the BCS theory.
Barnard, Christian: South African surgeon who shot
into world news in December 1967 when he completed the first heart
transplant operation on Louis Washkansky.
Beadle, Dr G.: American scientist awarded Nobel
Prize for medicine in 1958 for his work concerning the actual basis of
heredity—the way in which characteristics are transmitted from one
generation to another.
Becquerel, Henri: (1852-1908) French physicist known
for his discovery in 1896 of Becquerel rays, the first indications of
radio-activity; these rays were later named gamma rays. He shared Nobel
Prize for Physics with the Curies in 1903.
Berzelius, J.J: (1779-1848) Swedish Chemist, known for introduction of chemical shorthand symbols and atomic weights.
Bessemer, Sir Henry: (1813-1898) English engineer. He invented the process for the manufacture of steel known after his name.
Bhabha, Dr H.J.: (1909-66) Indian scientist. He
published important papers on Cosmic Rays and Quantum Theory. He was
professor at the Indian Science Institute, Bangalore; Chairman, Atomic
Energy Commission; Director, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research;
President, Indian Science Congress in 1951 and presided at the Atoms for
Peace Conference held at Geneva in 1956. He had many significant
researches in structure of atom and contributed largely to the setting
up of atomic reactors at Trombay (Mumbai).
Bhagvantam, Dr S.: is an eminent Indian scientist
who has made a rich contribution to research in radio astronomy and
cosmic rays. He has published more than 150 research papers and several
books. He retired in October 1969 as the Scientific Adviser to the
Ministry of Defence, and Director General of the Defence Research
Development Organisation. He is an old-time associate of Sir C.V. Raman.
Bhaskaracharya: Born in A.D. 1114, he was almost the
last great Hindu mathematician and astronomer until modern times. He
wrote Sidhanta-Siromani in 1150 which consisted of two mathematical and
two astronomical parts. Bhaskara anticipated the modern theory on the
convention of signs (minus by minus makes plus, minus by plus makes
minus). He also anticipated Kepler’s method for determining the surface
and volume of sphere.
Bhatnagar, Dr Shanti Swarup: (1895-1955) great
Indian scientist. He was Director of Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research (C.S.I.R.). A chain of National Laboratories has
been established in the country due to his able organisation and
unbounded energy.
Bohr, Neils: (born 1885) Danish Physicist. He was
awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. He greatly extended the theory
of atomic structure of devising an atomic model in 1913 and evolving
theory of nuclear structure; assisted America in atom bomb research.
Borlaug, Norman Ernest: American agricultural
scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1970. He was one of
those who laid the groundwork of the Green Revolution.
Bose, Sir J.C.: (1858-1937) Eminent Indian physicist
and Botanist; founder of Bose Research Institute, Calcutta. Inventor of
crescograph which is used to magnify movements made by plants.

Bose, S.N.: Eminent Indian scientist who won fame by expounding the
Bose-Einstein theory, which is concerned in detection of a group of
nuclear particles—named after him ‘Boson’ in recognition of his
contribution to the subject; contributed to Plank’s law. Professor of
physics, Calcutta University; nominated member to the Council of States.
Awarded Padma Vibhushan in 1954. He died on February 4, 1974.
Boyle, Robert: (1627-1691) Irish natural
philosopher; one of the founders of modern chemistry and Boyle’s law:
“Temperature remaining constant, volume of a given mass of gas varies
inversely as its pressure.”
Bragg, Sir William: (1862-1942) British physicist
known for researches on the behaviour of crystals with regard to X-rays
incident upon them. Author of the book: “Atomic Structure of Minerals”.

Cavendish, Henry: (1731-1810) English physicist and chemist; he discovered properties of hydrogen in 1766 and identified it as an element.
Chadwick, Sir James: (1891-1974) British physicist.
He discovered the particle in an atomic nucleus which became known as
the neutron, because it has no electric charge.
Chandrasekhar, Dr Subramanian: He was a scientist of
Indian origin settled in the U.S.A., who shared the 1983 Nobel Prize
for physics with an American, William Fowler. He was one of the most
outstanding astrophysicist of the world.

His theory of stellar evolution—the birth and death of stars—is more
than 30 years old. When he first propounded his finding that old stars
just collapse and disappear in the light of denser stars of low light,
the world’s top-flight astronomers laughed at him and rejected his
theory. A disappointed Dr Chandrasekhar left Trinity, Cambridge, to
pursue his research in the University of Chicago. Over the next two
decades the “Chandrasekhar Limit” became an intrinsic part of text-books
on advanced astrophysics. Global recognition and awards poured in, and
the 1983 Nobel Prize tops a remarkable career spanning almost half a
Charak: (c.A.D. 80-180) was a court physician to Kushan king Kanishka. His writings are invaluable in the study of Hindu medicine.
Charles, Jacques Alexander Cesar: (1746-1823) a
French scientist of great repute. He was the first to make a balloon
ascension with hydrogen. He is known for his work on the effect of
temperature on the volume of gases.
Clarke, Arthur C.: He is known for his suggestion of the concept of Geostationary Orbit.
Clark Maxwell, James: (1831-79) British physicist.
His theoretical work prepared the way for wireless telegraphy and
telephony. His principal works include: Perception of Colour, Colour
Blindness, Theory of Heat, Electricity and Magnetism, Matter and Motion.
Claude, Albert: is a biologist of Luxembourg who
shared the 1974 Nobel Prize in Medicine. His field of research relates
to causes and treatment of cancer.
Columbus, Christopher: (1446-1506) A well-known
Italian navigator set out on his first voyage in 1492; he discovered
West Indies Islands, Cuba and Bahamas; he also discovered South America
in 1498.
Cooper, Leon N.: Of the Brown University,
Providence, Rhode Island (U.S.A.) was one of the three co-winners of the
Nobel Prize in Physics, 1972 for researches into the theory of
Copernicus: (1413-1543) A prominent astronomer of Poland who discovered the “Solar System”.
Cornforth, John Warcup: co-winner of the 1975 Nobel
Prize in Chemistry is a deaf professor. He is an Australian living in
England. His chief distinction is mapping out the formation of
cholesterols which he calls “a great discovery” and contains the key to,
for instance, sex hormones.
Curie, Madame Marie: (1867-1934) Polish physicist
and chemist; famous for her discovery of radium was awarded Nobel Prize
in chemistry in 1911 and shared Nobel Prize in physics in 1903 with her
husband and Becquerel.
Dalton, John: (1766-1844) British scientist. He was founder of the Atomic Theory and law of Multiple Proportions.
Darwin, Charles: (1809-82) was the British scientist
who discovered the principle of natural selection. His famous work is
“The Origin of Species”.
Davy, Sir Humphrey: (1771-1829) British chemist.
First to apply electric current for the isolation of metals. Studied
anaesthetic action of nitrous oxide, properties of chlorine and alkali
Debreu, Gerard: Gerard Debreu of the University of
California at Berkeley, who has been awarded the 1983 Nobel memorial
prize in economics is known for his research on market equilibrium in
which he “incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory”.

Mr Debreu has expanded on a mathematical model designed by the two men
in the early 1950s that confirmed the logic of Adam Smith’s “theory of
general equilibrium” in which prices supply and demand tend to reach a
balance within a free market economy.
Delbrueck, Dr Max: is a German-born American doctor
working at the California Institute of Technology. He was one of the
three American co-winners of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1969 for
discoveries in molecular genetics.
De Vries: is known for Mutation theory.
Dhanvantri: a great physician during the reign of Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375-413 A.D.).
Dhawan, Prof Satish: He is former Chairman of the
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Under his dynamic leadership
India entered Space Age by launching “Aryabhata”, a scientific
satellite, into space on April 19, 1975.
Edelman, Dr Gerald Maurice: of U.S.A. is co-winner
of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1972. He is known for researches into
the chemical structure of blood-proteins or antibodies which shield the
human body against infection. He shared the prize with Dr Rodney Robert
Porter of Oxford. The two Nobel-laureates were able to break the giant
molecules formed by antibodies into their component sections.
Edison, Thomas Alva: (1847-1931) American inventor
of Dutch-Scottish parentage. He started life as a newsboy and then a
telegraph operator. His inventions include: phonograph, the incandescent
lamp, a new type of storage battery, an early form of cinematography
Einstein, Prof Albert: (1879-1955) was German-Swiss
world-famous scientist known for his theory of relativity. He was
awarded Nobel Prize for his work on photoelectric effect.
Faraday, Michael: (1791-1867) An eminent English
scientist; showed great prominence in the field of electromagnetism;
discovered the laws of electrolysis and wrote a number of useful books
on the subject.
Fleming, Alexander: (1881-1955) British bacteriologist. His notable discovery was lysozyme (1922), followed by penicillin (1929)—an antibiotic drug.
Fleming, Sir John Ambrose: (1849-1945) British physicist and engineer who was pioneer in the development of the telephone, electric light and radio.
Fraunhofer: German physicist. He gained prominence
on the researches of ‘Light’ while performing spectrum-analysis of
Sunlight; he discovered the spectrum to be crossed with some indifferent
black lines. And the lines are so named as Fraunhofer Lines.
Freud, Sigmund: (1856-1939) originator of
psycho-analysis, born of Jewish parents. Works: The Interpretation of
Dreams; The Psychopathology of Every-day Life; The Ego and the Id;
Civilization and Its Discontents.
Gabor, Dr Dennis: Who won the 1971 Nobel Prize award
for Physics is a 71-year old British electrical engineer working as a
scientist in the U.S.A. He was cited for his “invention in development
of the holographic method”—three dimensional photography. Dr Gabor was
the 16th Briton to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics. He was born and
educated in Hungary. He later worked as research engineer in Germany and
came to join the staff of the Imperial College in London in 1949. He
invented holography in the late forties. But the science became fully
developed with the coming of the laser in 1960. A holographic image is
so lifelike that a viewer can see around things in a holograph by moving
his head just as he looks around the real object.
Galileo: (1564-1642) Italian scientist. He was
professor of mathematics. His view that all falling bodies, great or
small, descend with equal velocity, made him unpopular with the orthodox
scientists. He improved telescope and with it was the first man to see
the satellites of Jupiter.
Gell-Mann, Prof Murray: was the recipient of the
1969 Nobel Prize for Physics. He is a teacher in the California
Institute of Technology. Born in New York in 1929, Prof Gell-Mann has
been the leading theorist in elementary particle research for the last
15 years. He was the 28th American to be awarded the Nobel Prize for
Physics in which the U.S.A. now leads. The Nobel Prize was given to him
for “his classification of elementary particles and their interactions”.
Goddard, Robert H.: was an American who mentioned
the possibility of shooting a rocket to the moon in a paper entitled “A
Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes” published by him in 1919. By 1926
he had put some of his ideas into practice. He is looked upon as one of
the pioneers of space research.
Graham, Thomas: (1805-1914) Scottish chemist called
the “father of colloidal chemistry”. He did remarkable work on diffusion
of substances in solution.
Heisenberg: is known for his theory of Uncertainty Principle.
Hahn, Otto: was a German pioneer of nuclear
research. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944. It was Hahn who
had proved in 1938 that atomic fission can be achieved by bombarding
uranium with neutrons. The discovery revolutionised atomic science.
Hall, Charles Martin: (1863-1914) American chemist who discovered the modern method of extraction of aluminium by electrolysis of bauxite in 1886.
Harvey, William: (1578-1675) English physician who discovered the circulation of blood.
Herzberg, Dr Gehard: has been awarded the 1971 Nobel
Prize in Chemistry, for his researches in atomic and molecular
structures, particularly free radicals. He is the first Canadian to win a
Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Holley, Robert: Co-winner of the Nobel Prize for
Medicine, 1968, belongs to Cornell. His researches into the genetic code
and its function in building protein led to the discovery of the
complete structure of a transfer RNA molecule and the way it works.
Hopkins, Sir Frederick Gowland: He was an eminent
English biochemist famous for his important work on proteins and
vitamins. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1929 for the
discovery of Vitamin D.
Hoyle, Fred: is a British scientist and science-fiction writer who won the £ 1,000 Kalinga Prize in 1968.

Jenner, Edward: (1749-1823) Eminent English physician who discovered the vaccination system of alleviating small pox.
Josephson, Dr Brian: is a British scientist who
co-shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for physics for “his theoretical
predictions of the properties of a super-current through a tunnel
barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as
Josephson effects”.
Joshi, Prof S.S.: He has done commendable work on
physical and chemical reactions under electric discharge on active
nitrogen; colloids; hydrogen peroxide; permanganates and a phenomenon
called “Joshi Effect”.
Joule, James Prescott: (1874-1937) a great English physicist who first demonstrated that mechanical energy can be converted into heat.
Kepler, Johannes: (1571-1630) German astronomer. He
discovered 3 laws of planetary motion that bear his name viz., (1) The
orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of the foci; (2)
the Radius vector of each planet describes equal areas in equal times;
(3) The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the
cubes of their mean distances from the sun.

Kepler had evolved a set of laws governing man in space with rare
prescience. In a kind of allegory, he referred to the dangers of solar
radiation, the need to overcome gravitational resistance, gravitational
capture of spacecraft by the moon etc. What he wrote nearly 360 years
ago was, however, little understood and his family was persecuted for
it. His mother had to die in jail having been condemned as a witch.
Khorana Hargobind: who shared with two others the
1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine is an Indian by birth and an American by
domicile. He deciphered the genetic code and later created an artificial
Krishnan, Dr K.S.: (born 1898) collaborated with Sir
C.V. Raman in the discovery of “Raman Effect”. President, Indian
Science Congress, 1949; delegate to several international scientific
conferences; Director, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi.
Lavoisier, A.L.: (1743-1794) French chemist; established law of Indestructibility of Matter, Composition of Water and Air.
Lister, Joseph: (1827-1912) British surgeon. He was the first to use antiseptic treatment for wounds; introduced antiseptic surgery.
Lodge, Sir Oliver Joseph: (1851-1940) British physicist. He is chiefly known for his researches on radiation, and the relation between matter and ether.

Lovell, Sir Bernard: He is professor of
Radio-Astronomy in the University of Manchester and is also Director of
the Jodrell Bank Observatory. He remains very much in the news for
tracking space-ships.
Lysenko: Author of Agro-biology, Lysenko gained fame
as a Soviet geneticist. In 1948, he declared the Mendelian theory
obsolete and erroneous.
Marconi: (1873-1937) Italian scientist; pioneer in wireless telegraphy and radio.
Max Planck: He was a German theoretical physicist
who formulated the quantum theory which revolutionized physics. He was
awarded the Nobel Prize in 1918.
Mendel, Johann Gregory: (1822-84) Austrian monk and
naturalist whose discovery of certain principles of inheritance
(heredity) is of deep significance in the study of biology.
Mendeleef, D.I.: (1834-1901) a Russian chemist,
founder of periodic law and famous for the development of petroleum and
other industries in Russia.
Meyer, Victor: (1848-1897) discovered a method to determine the molecular weights of volatile substances.
Morley, Edward William: (1818-1923) American chemist and physicist best known for his work in determining the composition of water by weight.
Moseley, Henry G.: (1887-1915) British physicist who did valuable work on atomic structure, and in 1913, devised the series of atomic numbers.
Nagarjuna: the renowned chemist of Buddhist era
whose works are mostly preserved in China and Tibet. A great Philosopher
and Chemist. He makes a mention of crucibles, distillation stills,
sublimation, colouring process, alloying of metals, extraction of copper
and use of many metallic oxides in medicines. About chemistry he said,
“As long as the science of chemistry prevails, let hunger, pain and
poverty not torment men.”
Nag-Chowdhury, B.D.: an eminent Indian nuclear physicist, known all over the world.
Narlikar, J.V.: Indian scientist; co-author of
Hoyle-Narlikar Theory of continuous creation. The theory of which he is
co-author has been hailed as supplying some important missing links in
Einstein’s theory of Relativity. The new theory of gravitation
propounded by both the scientists, Narlikar and Hoyle, shows that
gravitation is always attractive and there is no gravitational
Newton, Sir Isaac: (1642-1727) was the British
natural philosopher. He discovered binomial theorem; the differential
and integral calculus. He expounded the universal law of gravitation. He
is author of Principia Mathematica.
Nirenberg, Dr Marshall: is a U.S. molecular
biologist who shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Dr Robert
Holley and Dr Hargobind Khorana. Nirenberg is the author of a very
simple but ingenious experiment which helped a great deal in clarifying
the general character of the genetic code.
Oberth, Hermann: is a Rumanian-German Professor who
is credited with establishing the experimental basis of modern rocketry.
In 1923, the publication of his book, “The Rocket into Interplanetary
Space” aroused great interest in space travel.
Ohm, George Simon: (1787-1854) physicist and mathematician; discovered the law known as Ohm’s Law.
Onsager, Lars: is a U.S. Professor who became a
Nobel laureate in 1968 by winning the prize for Chemistry “for the
discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name which are
fundamental for the thermo-dynamics of irreversible processes”.
Paraceisus: (1493-1541) a Swiss mystic and chemist. He was the first to employ laudanum and antimony in Pharmacy.
Parson, Sir Charles: (1854-1931) British engineer; inventor of Parson steam turbine.
Pasteur, Louis: (1822-95) He was a French chemist
who discovered the causes of fermentation in alcohol and milk and
founded the Pasteur Institute in 1888. He made researches in silkworm
disease, anthrax, and hydrophobia.
Pauling, Linus: American bio-chemist. He applied the
quantum theory to chemistry and was awarded Nobel Prize (1954) for his
contribution to the electrochemical theory of valency.
Porter, Dr Rodney Robert: is Professor of
Biochemistry in Oxford University. Dr Porter is known for his
discoveries relating to the chemical structure of antibodies.
Priestley, Joseph: (1733-1804) British Chemist; discovered oxygen and methods of collecting gases.
Pythagoras: is known as the father of Geometry.
Rainwater, James: of the U.S.A. who co-shared the
1975 Nobel Prize in Physics is known for the development of the theory
that atomic nucleus is not always spherical but can also be egg-shaped
which has no immediate practical meaning but is extremely essential to
Ramanna, Dr Raja: former Director of Bhabha Atomic
Research Centre at Trombay. He was one of the Indian scientists
associated with staging India’s first nuclear blast at Pokhran on May
18, 1974.
Raman, Sir C.V.: (1888-1970) Eminent Indian
Scientist (F.R.S.) National Professor of Physics and founder Director of
Raman Research Institute, Bangalore. He was awarded Nobel Prize for his
discovery of ‘Raman Effect’ (Feb 28, 1928). His work on study of
crystal structure is of unique importance. Feb 28 is celebrated every
year as National Science Day.
Ramanujan, Srinivas: (1887-1920) Indian
mathematician who contributed to the theory of numbers, theory of
partitions, and the theory of continued fractions.
Ramsay, Sir William: (1852-1916) English chemist who
discovered helium and later on neon, argon in collaboration with
Rayleigh and others. He was awarded Nobel Prize in 1904.

Rao, Prof U. Ramachandra: is the Director of Indian Scientific Satellite Project (ISSP) at Peenya near Bangalore.
Ray, Sir P.C.: (1861-1944) founder of Indian
Chemical Society and Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works Ltd., and
author of ‘Hindu Chemistry’. His work about nitrous acid and its salts
deserves special mention.
Richards, T.W.: He was Prof of Chemistry at Harvard
University in U.S.A. He did notable work in the accurate determination
of atomic weights and was awarded Nobel Prize in 1916.
Roger Bacon: (1214-1294) He was inventor of Gun Powder and founder of experimental science; man of remarkable gifts and inventive power.
Rontgen, W. Konrad: (1845-1923) German physicist. He
discovered X-rays, also called Rontgen rays. He was awarded the first
Nobel Prize in 1901 for discovery of X-Rays.
Ross, Ronald: (1857-1932) leading British physician who discovered the cause of Malaria; awarded Nobel Prize for medicine in 1902.
Rutherford, Daniel: (1749-1819) a Scottish scientist who is given the credit for the discovery of nitrogen.
Rutherford, Lord: (1871-1937) won a Nobel Prize for his work on structure of atom and radio-activity.
Ryle, Sir Martin: of the U.K. who shared the 1974
Nobel Prize in Physics is known for the development of “aperture
synthesis” technique designed to identify stellar objects through radio
Saha, Dr Meghnad: (1893-1956) late Palit Prof of
Physics, University College of Science and Technology, Calcutta
University—well known for his researches in nuclear physics, cosmic
rays, spectrum analysis and other branches of theoretical physics.
Sanger, Dr Frederik: British scientist awarded Nobel
Prize in Chemistry in 1958 for his work in determining the composition
of the insulin molecule. By his discovery he has put science a step
forward towards knowing how disease attacks the human body. In 1980, he
became only the fourth person ever to be awarded a second Nobel Prize.
Sarabhai, Dr Vikram A.: former Chairman of India’s
Atomic Energy Commission and the Indian Space Research Organization
(ISRO) died on December 30, 1971. Dr Sarabhai was an eminent physicist
mainly interested in the astrophysical implications of Cosmic Ray Time
Sen, P.K. (Dr): is the Indian surgeon who performed Asia’s first heart transplant operation in Mumbai.
Simpson, Sir James Young: (1811-70) British physicist who was largely instrumental in the introduction of chloroform as an anaesthetic in 1847.
Soddy, Frederick: (1877-1956) British physical
chemist. He was a pioneer of research into atomic disintegration. He
coined the term “isotopes”; did classic work on radioactivity.
Solvay, Earnest: (1838-1922) Belgian chemist known for devising a process known after his name for manufacture of sodium carbonate.
Susruta: was a fourth century Hindu surgeon and
physician. He wrote an important book on medicine and also a thesis on
the medical properties of garlic.
Sutherland, Dr Earl W.: was the recipient of the
Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1971. He is credited with the discovery that
the hormones in the human body produce another substance known as cyclic
A.M.P., which activates them and controls the body’s cells. He has
demonstrated that changes in the level of cyclic A.M.P. in the body can
influence its disease-resisting capacity. This discovery opens up new
vistas for the development of drugs that can treat diseases which have
so far been regarded as incurable.
Teller, Edward (Dr): is a U.S. nuclear scientist who
has played a major role in developing the hydrogen bomb. He is in fact
known as the “father of the H-bomb”.
Thomson, Sir J.J.: (1856-1940) British physicist. He
discovered the electron which inaugurated the electrical theory of the
atom. He is regarded as the founder of modern physics.
Tsiolkovsky: was a Russian teacher who in 1903
published a treatise presenting remarkably accurate calculations on
rocket dynamics and space-travel. He is looked upon as the earliest
among the pioneers who laid the foundations of space exploration. The
Russians call him the “Father of Rocketry”.
Varahmihira: (505-587) was a distinguished Indian
astronomer, mathematician and philosopher. He was one of the nine gems
of the court of king Vikramaditya.
Verne, Jules: (1828-1905) French science-fiction
writer was author of “From the Earth to the Moon” published in 1865. The
book carried a more or less accurate prediction of the launching and
flight of Apollo-8.
Volta, A.: (1745-1827) Italian physicist and pioneer
of electrical science; invented voltaic pile, the electrophorus and
electroscope. The volt is named after him.
Voronoff, S.: Russian scientist best known for his
method of preventing or delaying senility by grafting healthy animal
glands, into the human body.
Watson and Crick: known for DNA double helix.
Watson-Watt, Sir Robert: British physicist. He developed radar.
Watt, James: (1736-1819) was Scottish engineer. He invented steam engine.
Yukawa, Dr H.: (born 1907) predicted a new particle
meson which holds the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus. He is
the first Japanese to win the Nobel Prize in Physics (1949).

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